FARMER'S BOOKSHELF

An information system of tropical crops in Hawaii
Department of Tropical Plant & Soil Sciences
University of Hawaii at Manoa



Ginger

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Ask the Experts--Ginger, CTAHR
Ginger. Texas A&M University
Ginger; Gingerroot. Epicurious Eating Dictionary
Ginger insects, pests, and plant disease pathogens, Knowledge Master, CTAHR


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Computerized Ginger Cost of Analysis


Ginger Cost Analysis File

Dr. Kent Fleming, fleming@hawaii.edu, Tropical Plant & Soil Sciences Dept., CTAHR, (808-322-9136), developed this program to help farmers determine their costs and profits. You will need a spreadsheet program such as Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Excel, etc. to run the cost analysis file.

Cost of Analyis Spreadsheet


Culture


Proper sanitation is paramount in ginger culture. The field should be free from contamination from flowing water and external soil. Entry should be limited to soil free equipment, machinery and personnel.

Proper vertical growth of the ginger rhizome is insured by adequate soil cover. The hilling operation should be made subsequent to alternate fertilizer applications.

A total of 3 to 5 hilling operations are made during the crop cycle. The earlier operations are done by hand with later hillings made with the assistance of a tiller with the ability to throw soil onto the ginger row.


Weeds

Direct aromatic oil spray between the plants and in the rows (do not apply on (ginger plants). Weeds are best controlled when they are one inch in height or less. D0 NOT apply from 2 months before harvest.

CAUTION: Aromatic oil sprays fortified with sodium pentachlorphenate and pentachlorophenol are not approved for use.

Note: The pesticide applicator must have a copy of the appropriate Supplemental state registration in his possession at the time the material is applied. All applicable label directions, restrictlon and precautions on the primary and supplemental labels must be followed.

Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System, CTAHR


Cultivars


Small rhizome type with rich yellow flesh color is usually referred to as the Japanese type. Plant growth about 15 to 18 inches high with smaller leaves but more pungent flavor.

Large rhizome type with light yellow color flesh is usually referred to as the Chinese type. Plant growth about 24 to 48 inches high with larger leaves but less pungent flavor and larger yield.


Description


Small rhizome type with rich yellow flesh color is usually referred to as the Japanese type. Plant growth about 15 to 18 inches high with smaller leaves but more pungent flavor.

Large rhizome type with light yellow color flesh is usually referred to as the Chinese type. Plant growth about 24 to 48 inches high with larger leaves but less pungent flavor and larger yield .


Diseases


Methyl bromide at the rate of one pound per 100 square feet under an air-tight covering for 48 hours.

To control Fusarium wilt and bacterial wilt organisms carried within the seed pieces use clean seed pieces from healthy plants only. Apply Benomyl to seed pieces as a hot dip. Use 1/2 to 1 pound per 100 gals. water. Maintain temperature of suspension at 122F (50 C). Soak for 10 minutes. Remove and allow to drain.

For Bacterial diseases (Thiram, general use for crops), for Fusarium, Benlate (Benomyl) root treatments. Methyl bromide is used for soil sterilization (HI pest database, 1991).

Ginger insects, pests, and plant disease pathogens, Knowledge Master, CTAHR
Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System, CTAHR


Fertilizers


Soils

Loose, well drained soil with fairly high moistwater holding capacity with a pH of 5-5 to 6.5. The soil should be relatively free of root knot nematodes and soil-borne diseases causing Fusarium wilt and bacterial wilt of tomatoes.


A. Preplant

  1. Apply 1,000 pounds per acre of treblesuperphosphate (n-47-o) at planting, banded 2 to 3 inches below the seed piece or mixed within the plant row.

    1- 4 weeks after planting or at shoot emergence, apply a complete fertllizer such as 10-30-10 in and 4 to 8 inches to the side of the plant rows at a rate of 200 to 400 pounds per acre.

  2. At four week intervals for two application, aoply 400 to 600 pounds per acre of a complete fertilizer such as 14-14-14 or 15-15-15 in bands 10 to 12 inches to the side of the plant rows.

  3. Subsequent applications should be made with a complete fertilizer such as 15-15-15 at 4 to 6 week intervals at 600 to 1,000 pounds per acre 15 inches from the plant row.

    High potash fertilizers such as K-mag (0-0-26) may be applied during the later stages of the crop to induce firm rhizomes with shiny skin surface.


Calcium ammendments may be worked in to the soil during, the hilling process to minimize the incidence of tip rot.


pH

Apply adequate liming material (calcium carbonate or dolomite) to raise the soil pH to the optimum 5.5 to 6.5 range. Work broadcast material thoroughly into soil prior to fumigation.


Harvest


The crop matures after the flowering stage. Premature drying of the plants before or during the flowerfng stage is usually caused by the bacterial or Fusarium wilt diseases

Harvesting is done after the leaves turn yellow and dry down completely with the stems falling over. At this stage, the rhizomes have a fairly firm skin and will not bruise easily in the washing and handling process.

Early harvest of mature ginger is facilitated by trimming of the tops 2 to 3 weeks prior to harvest- Care should be exercised in the washing process as the skin of younger ginger is subject to damage.

For the specialty market of young ginger for pickling purposes, the crop is harvested before the flowering stage when the rhizome has a yellow or brown color and is not very fibrous. This type of young ginger is usually marketed with about 1 to 1-1/2 inches of the stems attached to the rhizomes.

The matured crop not harvested within 3 to 4 months after senescence wlll start new growth and reduce the proportion of marketable rhizomes.

Harvested rhizomes are usually washed and graded according to the standards established by the State of Hawaii, Department of Agriculture.


Insects


For preplant treatment to control root knot, sting, lesion, and burrowing nematode: 1- D-D (40 to 6O gals. per acre) or Terr-o-cide 30-D at 15 to 25 gals. per acre.

Chemicals are injected into soil at a depth of 8 to 12 inches with injectors spaced 12 inches apart- A waiting period of 2 to 3 weeks from treatment to planting is necessary. Soil should be slightly moist with all nematode infested roots removed or decayed at time of treatment for best tesults.

Methyl bromide (67%. plus 33% Chloropicrin) is applied at the rate of one pound per 100 square feet under an air-tight covering. A waiting period of 24 to 48 hours is necessary to insure proper treatment. For hest results soil should be slightly moist at the time of treatment.

Vydate L at 1 to 2 gals. per acre (broadcast); for band treatments use proportionately less.. Following application, incorporate the Vydate 2 to 4 inches into soil. Use the low rate for light infestations.

Post Plant treatments to control root knot, sting, lesion, and burrowing nematodes:

Foliar treatments. Apply 2 to 4 pints Vydate per acre in sufficient water to obtain uniform coverage of foliage. Make the first application 2 to 4 weeks after planting and repeat 14 to 21 days later. Use low rate on light infestations. Best results follow usage of Vydate L as a soil treatment.

Drip irrigation: Apply 1 to 2 gals. Vydate L per acre directly into the soil via drip irrigation emitters. Apply within 1 weeks after planting and repeat at 14-day intervals as needed. DO NOT apply within 30 days of harvest. Follow directions as indicated on the SLN- 820001 label.

For preplant wireworm and cutworm control

  1. Methyl bromide as described above.

  2. Apply Diazinon 48%. EC (1/2 to 1 pt. per acre), Diazinon 40% WP (5/8 to 1-1/4 pounds per acre), or Diazinon 50% WP (1/2 to 1 Pound per acre) in 50 to 100 gallons of water. DO no NOT apply within 7 days of harvest.


To control chewing insects (Chinese rose beetle), spray the foliage with carbaryl wettable powder at 1 to 4 pounds of material per acre. Applications should be concentrated on border rows where high damage incidence levels generally occur (Takeda, 85).

To clean root knot nematode infected rhizomes

Hot water treatment at 120F for 10 minutes. The 12OF water temperature must be kept constant with a thermostat. Temperatures above 120F will damage the seed pieces while temperatures below will not effectively control the nematodes.

Ginger insects, pests, and plant disease pathogens, Knowledge Master, CTAHR
Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System, CTAHR


Planting


The crop is usually planted in the early spring and harvested from January to March of the following year after a growing period of 8 to 10 months.

Clean seed pieces obtained from healthy plants with 3 to 4 eyes (Shoots) are planted 4 to 6 inches deep, spaced 10 to 18 inches between plants

The crop requires an abundant supply of soil moisture during its growing period with dry soil conditions toward harvest.