References for further reading on koa
Adamski, D.J., N. S. Dudley, C.W. Morden, and D. Borthakur. 2012. Genetic differentiation and diversity of Acacia koa populations in the Hawaiian Islands. Plant Species Biology 27: 181-190. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-1984.2011.00359.x
Adamski, D.J., N. S. Dudley, C.W. Morden, and D. Borthakur. 2013. Cross-amplification of nonnative Acacia species in the Hawaiian Islands using microsatellite markers from Acacia koa. Plant Biosystems 147 (4): 1088-1091, doi: 10.1080/11263504.2012.749958
Ares, A, JH Fownes, and P Simmons. 2008. Wood production and native vegetation conservation in Hawaii’s uplands. West. J. Appl. For. 23 (3): 177-182.
Ares, A and JH Fownes. 1999. Water supply regulates structure, productivity, and water use efficiency of Acacia koa forest in Hawaii. Oecologia 121: 458-466.
Ares, A, JH Fownes, and WG Sun. 2000. Genetic differentiation of intrinsic water-use efficiency in the Hawaiian native Acacia koa. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(6): 909-915.
Baker, PJ, AP Robinson, and JJ Ewel. 2008. Sudden and sustained response of Acacia koa crop trees to crown release in stagnant stands. Can. J. of For. Res. 38: 656-666.
Baker, PJ, and PG Scowcroft. 2005. Stocking guidelines for the endemic Hawaiian hardwood Acacia koa. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 17(4): 610-624.
Baker, P, P Scowcroft, and J Ewel. 2009. Koa (Acacia koa) Ecology and Silviculture, USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-211
Daehler, CC, M Yorkston, WG Sun, and N Dudley. 1999. Genetic variation in morphology and growth characters of Acacia koa in the Hawaiian islands. Int. J. Plant. Sci. 160(4): 767-773.
Davis, AS, JR Pinto, and DF Jacobs. 2011. Early field performance of Acacia koa seedlings grown under subirrigation and overhead irrigation. Native Plants Journal 12(2): 95-99.
Dumroese RK, AS Davis, DF Jacobs. 2011. Nursery response of Acacia koa seedlings to container size, irrigation method, and fertilization rate. J Plant Nutr 34: 877–887.
Dumroese, RK, DF Jacobs, and AS Davis. 2009. Inoculating Acacia koa with Bradyrhizobium and applying fertilizer in the nursery: effects on nodule formation and seedling growth. HortScience. 44(2): 443-446.
Earnshaw, KM, TW Baribault, and DF Jacobs. 2016. Alternative field fertilization techniques to promote restoration of leguminous Acacia koa on contrasting tropical sites. For Ecol Manage 376: 126-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.06.012 0378-1127
Elevitch, CR, K Wilkinson, and JB Friday. 2006. Acacia koa (koa). Pp. 1-28 in: Elevitch, CR, ed. Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands. Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hōlualoa, HI. http://www.traditionaltree.org
Ferentinos, L. and D. Evans, Koa: A Decade of Growth, Proceedings of the Symposium, November 18 and 19, 1996, Honolulu Hawai’i.
Friday, J. B. 2010. Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Koa (Acacia koa). In: Elevitch, C.R. (ed.). Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai‘i.
Friday, JB, PG Scowcroft, and A Ares. 2008. Responses of native and invasive plant species to selective logging in an Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha forest in Hawai‘i. Applied Vegetation Science 11: 471-482. doi: 10.3170/2008-7-18538
Goldstein, JH, GC Daily, JB Friday, PA Matson, RL Naylor, and P Vitousek. 2006. Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study. PNAS 103(26): 10140-10145.
Haines, WP, ML Heddle, P Welton, and D Rubinoff. 2009. A recent outbreak of the Hawaiian koa moth, Scotorythra paludicola (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), and a review of outbreaks between 1892 and 2003. Pacific Science 63(3) 349-369. doi: 10.2984/049.063.0305
Idol, TW, PJ Baker, and D Meason. 2007. Indicators of forest ecosystem productivity and nutrient status across precipitation and temperature gradients in Hawaii. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23: 693-704.
Jacobs, DF, A Davis, and RK Dumroese. Nursery cultural techniques to facilitate restoration of Acacia koa competing with exotic kikuyu grass in a dry tropical forest. Purdue University and University of Idaho.
Leary J, Singleton PW and Borthakur D. 2004. Canopy nodulation of the endemic tree legume Acacia koa in the mesic forests of Hawaii. Ecology 85:3151-3157.
Miyasaka, SC, M Habte and DT Matsuyama. 2008. Mycorrhizal dependency of two Hawaiian endemic tree species: Koa and mamane. J of Plant Nutrition 16(7): 1339-1356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169309364616
Nelson, SC. 2006. Grafting of Acacia koa Gray onto young Acacia seedlings. Native Plants Journal 7(2): 137-140.
Pejchar L, KD Holl, JL Lockwood. 2005. Hawaiian honeycreeper home range size varies with habitat: implications for native Acacia koa forestry. Ecol Appl 15(3): 1053–1061 DOI: 10.1890/04-0577
Pejchar, L, and D Press. 2006. Achieving conservation objectives through production forestry: the case of Acacia koa on Hawaii Island. Environmental Science and Policy Vol 9, Issue 5. 439-447. Available at Science Direct.
Pinto, JR, AS Davis, JJK Leary, MM Aghai. 2015. Stocktype and grass suppression accelerate the restoration trajectory of Acacia koa in Hawaiian montane ecosystems. New Forests 46: 855. DOI 10.1007/s11056-015-9492-6
Scowcroft, P. G. 2013. Parent tree effects on reestablishment of Acacia koa in abandoned pasture and the influence of initial density on stand development. New Forests 44: 409-426. DOI 10.1007/s11056-012-9352-6
Scowcroft, PG. 2012. Parent tree effects on reestablishment of Acacia koa in abandoned pasture and the influence of initial density on stand development. New Forests DOI 10.1007/s11056-012-9352-6
Scowcroft, PG, JB Friday, J Haraguchi, TW Idol, NS Dudley. 2010. Poor stem form as a potential limitation to private investment in koa plantation forestry in Hawaii. Small-scale Forestry. doi: 10.1007/s11842-009-9107-1.
Scowcroft, PG, JB Friday, T Idol, N Dudley, J Haraguchi, and D Meason. 2007. Growth response of Acacia koa trees to thinning, grass control, and phosphorus fertilization in a secondary stand in Hawai‘i. Forest Ecology and Management 239: 69-80.
Scowcroft, PG, JE Haraguchi, and D Fujii. 2008. Understory structure in a 23-year-old Acacia koa forest and 2-year growth responses to silvicultural treatments. For. Ecol. Manage. 255: 1604 – 1617.
Scowcroft, PG and JA Silva 2005. Effects of phosphorus fertilization, seed source, and soil type on growth of Acacia koa. Journal of Plant Nutrition 28: 1581-1603.
Shi, X and JL Brewbaker. 2005. Genetic improvement of Hawaii's premier hardwood, Acacia koa. Forest Genetic Resources. 31:36-40. FAO/Rome.
Sun, W. 1996. Genetic Improvement of Leucaena and Acacia koa. PhD dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. PDF 8 MB.