American Samoa Water Quality
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The American Samoa Interagency Piggery Management Council (ASIPMC)
Background of problems encountered in American Samoa
  Cultural background Surface water & Ground water Objectives Photos
  Legal setting Human Health Approach
  Piggery Waste Management Technique Development Program
  Implications of Pig Production on Human Health and the Environment Research Program
  Pig Husbandry and Water Awareness Program & Implementation and Education Program
Surface Water
Surface water formations in American Samoa are in the form of perennial and ephemeral streams. Many of the piggeries are located on stream banks and piggery waste is intentionally washed directly into the adjacent stream. These streams provide habitat for freshwater fish, plants and invertebrates. Surface waters are often used for recreational purposes and are a source of drinking water in some remote parts of the islands. All surface waters in the territory discharge directly into marine water bodies. Depending on the flow rate and water quality of the stream as well as the degree of mixing at the discharge, surface waters have the potential to impact the suitability of marine environments for wildlife and recreational purposes. In addition to the direct discharge of pig waste into surface waters, the drainage of fields during precipitation can contaminate surface waters if animal wastes have been applied improperly (Fig 4).
Ground Water
Groundwater is the principle source of domestic and industrial water supply in the territory. This is due to its relative abundance in comparison to surface water as well as its high quality. Groundwater is frequently of high enough quality that it can simply be chlorinated and placed directly into the water distribution system without the expensive treatment systems that are required to make surface water suitable for domestic and industrial supply. The volcanic soil and bedrock, which make up the aquifers of the territory, are highly permeable and therefore do not provide a good filter to remove groundwater impurities. This lack of filtration capacity, combined with intense rainfall events, creates a situation were the groundwater supply is easily threatened by the poor management of potentially contaminants including piggery wastes.
When animal wastes are introduced into the aquifer, nutrients, BOD, and pathogens degrade the quality of the groundwater. Animal wastes may impact groundwater through infiltration from unlined lagoons or infiltration from animal wastes improperly applied to agricultural lands as fertilizer. In aquifers with the ability to filter out impurities pathogens and some BOD can often be attenuated. However, nutrients, which are dissolved in the water, are rarely removed and make the extracted groundwater unsuitable as a drinking water source. E. coli an indicator of the presence of pathogens, has been periodically detected at unsafe levels in the government water system by the American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency (ASEPA). This usually occurs after heavy rains or if chlorination at a wellhead fails. When E. coli is detected, warnings are issued to various villages alerting them to the need to boil their water due to the potential presence of pathogens. It has not been determined if the source of the contamination was the water supply or the distribution system however poor management of piggery wastes has the potential to affect both.
Current piggery operations also impact the environment through their high consumption of water. A piggery of less than 10 pigs is estimated to require 50 to 100 gallons of water per day using current manure management methods. Although piggeries use only a small fraction of the water used by the main water consumer on Tutuila Island, the tuna canneries, water supply projections by the American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA) indicate that conservation measures by all island consumers are needed.
References : United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 1999 Census of Agriculture.
Download entire document and piggery photos
American Samoa Interagency Piggery Managment Council American Samoa Interagency Piggery Managment Council.doc
American Samoa Interagency Piggery Managment Council American Samoa Interagency Piggery Managment Council.pdf
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Leptospirosis Brochure samoan leptospirosis brochure.pdf
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