University of Hawai‘i at Manoa
Skip Breadcrumb

Last updated on Wednesday, May 17, 2017     Make updates ->

Samir  Khanal

Name :

Samir Khanal

Title :

Assoc Prof/BE Grad Chair

Unit :

Department of Molecular Biosciences & BioEngineering

Address :

1955 East-West Rd. #218
                    Honolulu, HI 96822

Room :

Ag Sciences Building 415K

Phone :

(808)956-3812

Fax :

(808)956-3542

E-mail :

khanalAThawaiiDOTedu

Website :

http://www2.hawaii.edu/~khanal/

Specialties :

• Microbial processes for resource recovery and waste remediation • Waste/agri-residues to biofuel and biobased products and biorefinery • Anaerobic biorefinery • Hydrogenetrophic methanogenesis • Novel sulfate-reducing pathway for energy-efficient wastewater treatment • ORP-based process control for biological waste treatment system • Aquaponic for nitrogen recovery and climate change mitigation • Biochar applications for waste (water) treatment and biogas upgrading • Low-cost decentralized waste treatment system including anaerobic membrane bioreactor. •High solids digestion and bioenergetics

Education :


Iowa State University Ames, IA                                        Post-doc.                     2004
Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. & Tech., HK            Env. Eng.         Ph. D.                         2002
Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand       Env. Eng.          M. S.                          1997
Malaviya National Institute of Tech., India   Civil Eng.          B. S. (honors)              1993



 

Projects :


1.  Biochar Application for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Retention.

 Funding Agency: Northeast Regional Sun Grant Center

2.     Fundamental Understanding of Anaerobic Digestion of Energy Crops for Bioenergy Production.

 Funding Agency: USDA-Supplemental Research/ Extension grant

3.     Sustainable Integrated Food Production through Aquaponic Systems.

Funding Agency: USDA-Specialty Crops

4.     Characterization of High Yield Energy Crops for Bioenergy Potential.

Funding Agency: Biomass Research and Development Initiative-USDA   
                                                                       
5. Donation to Khanal’s Bioenergy and Environment Research Group by ProtaCulture.

6.  Utilization of Local Agri-processing By-products to Produce Fungal Protein for Aquatic Feed Production.

Funding Agency: Center for Tropical and Sub-tropical Aquaculture

7.     Developing ORP-based Process Control for High Solids Anaerobic Digestion.

Funding Agency: United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA-AFRI)

8.     Nitrogen Transformations in Aquaponics and its Implications to Climate Change.

Funding Agency: United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA-AFRI)

9.     Conversion of High-Yield Tropical Biomass into Sustainable Biofuels.

Funding Agency: Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI), United States Dept. of Agriculture and US Dept. of Energy

10.  Developing Anaerobic Digestion Biorefinery Using High Yield Tropical Feedstocks.

 Funding Agency: Sun Grant Western Regional Center through U.S. Dept. of  Transportation

11.  Can Biologically-derived Nitrogen be Used as a Fertilizer for Organic Farming?

Funding Agency: USDA-Supplemental Research/ Extension grant; Amount

12.  Converting Food Waste into Biofuel and Animal Feed through Insect Farming.

Funding Agency: HATCH Grant



Selected Courses Taught:


Transport Phenomena; Sustainable Engineering; Life-cycle Analysis; Industrial Waste Treatment and Resource Recovery; Biomass Conversion to Biofuel and Bioenergy; Environmental Biotechnology; Anaerobic Biotechnology; Principles of Environmental Engineering; Water and Wastewater Engineering.

Academic Interests :


• Microbial processes for resource recovery and waste remediation
• Waste/agri-residues to biofuel and biobased products and biorefinery
• Anaerobic biorefinery
• Hydrogenetrophic methanogenesis
• Novel sulfate-reducing pathway for energy-efficient wastewater treatment
• ORP-based process control for biological waste treatment system
• Aquaponic for nitrogen recovery and climate change mitigation
• Biochar applications for waste (water) treatment and biogas upgrading
• Low-cost decentralized waste treatment system including anaerobic membrane bioreactor.
• High solids digestion and bioenergetics

Books

 ·  Bioenergy: Principles and Applications. (Yebo Li and Samir Kumar Khanal). John-Wiley & Sons, 2016; 600 pp) (Textbook). (Equal contribution)

http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118568311,subjectCd-AG90.html

 ·  Proceedings of the first international conference on “Recent Advances in Bioenergy Research” (eds.: Sachin Kumar, Samir Kumar Khanal and Yogender Kumar Yadav). Springer Publishing (Spring 2016).

(http://www.springer.com/us/book/9788132227717)

 ·   Waste Biorefinery: Potential and Perspectives. (eds. Thallada Bhaskar, Ventaka Mohan, Samir Kumar Khanal, D.-J. Lee, and A. Pandey). Elsevier Inc. USA. (in-press)

·   Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production: Principles and Applications. (1st edition, Bestseller, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing)(Oct 2008; 320 pp).

    (http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0813823463.html

 ·    Bioenergy and Biofuel from Biowastes and Biomass. (Bestseller, American Society of Civil Engineers) (Apr 2010; 505 pp); Lead Editor and Contributor.

          http://www.asce.org/Product.aspx?id=2147487587

Book Chapters

1.    Rajendran, K., Surendra, K.C., Tomberlin, J.K., and Khanal, S.K. Insect-based biorefinery for bioenergy and biobased products: A critical review. In Waste Biorefinery: Potential and Perspectives. (eds. Thallada Bhaskar, Ventaka Mohan, Samir Kumar Khanal, D.-J. Lee, and A. Pandey). Elsevier Inc. USA. (in-press)

2.    Khanal, S.K. Giri, B., Nitayavardhana, S., and Gadhamshetty, V. 2017. Anaerobic reactor/digester: Design and development. In Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering. (eds. D.-J. Lee, J. Jegatheesan, P. Hallenbeck, H. H. Ngo, and A. Pandey). Elsevier Inc. USA. Pp 261-279.

3.    Takara, D., and Khanal, S. K. 2012. Biomass pretreatment for biofuel production. In Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts. (eds. K. Gopalakrishnan, H. van Leeuwen, and R. Brown). Springer-Verlag Inc., London, UK. pp 59-70.

4.    Shrestha, P., Pometto III. A.L., Khanal, S. K., and Van Leeuwen, J.  2012. Second-generation biofuel production from corn-ethanol industry residues. In Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts. (eds. K. Gopalakrishnan, H. van Leeuwen, and R. Brown). Springer-Verlag Inc., London, UK. pp 71-87.

5.    Khanal, S. K., and Munasinghe, P. 2011.Biomass-derived syngas fermentation into biofuels. In Biofuels: Alternative Feedstocks and Conversion Processes. (eds. A. Pandey, C. Larroche, S.C. Ricke, C.G. Dussap and E. Gnansounou). Elsevier Inc. USA. pp 79-98.

6.    Khanal, S. K., and Lamsal, B. P. 2010. Biofuel and bioenergy production: some perspectives. In Biofuel and Bioenergy from Biowastes and Lignocellulosic Biomass. (eds. Samir K. Khanal et al.). American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, VA, USA. pp 1-22.

7.    Takara, D., Shrestha, P., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. In Biofuel and Bioenergy from Biowastes and Lignocellulosic Biomass. (eds. Samir K. Khanal et al.). American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, VA, USA. pp 158-171.

8.    Shrestha, P., Lamsal, B. P., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Preprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. In Biofuel and Bioenergy from Biowastes and Lignocellulosic Biomass. (eds. Samir K. Khanal et al.). American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, VA, USA. pp 172-200.

9.    Lamsal, B. P., Shrestha, P., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. In Biofuel and Bioenergy from Biowastes and Lignocellulosic Biomass. (eds. Samir K. Khanal et al.). American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, VA, USA. pp 201-224.

10. Gadhamshetty, V., Nirmalakhandan, N., Khanal, S. K., and Johnson, G. R. 2010. Bioreactor systems for biofuel/bioelectricity production. In Biofuel and Bioenergy from Biowastes and Lignocellulosic Biomass. (eds. Samir K. Khanal et al.). American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, VA, USA. pp 275-312.

11. Shrestha, P., Rasmussen, M.R., Nitayavardhana, S., Khanal, S. K., and Van Leeuwen. J. 2010.  Bioreactor systems for biofuel/bioelectricity production. In Biofuel and Bioenergy from Biowastes and Lignocellulosic Biomass. (eds. Samir K. Khanal et al.). American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, VA, USA. pp 389-410.

12. Khanal, S.K., Takara, D., Shrestha, P., and Lamsal, B. P. 2010. Ultrasound applications in biofuel and bioenergy production. In Green Chemistry for Environmental Sustainability (eds. A. Mudhoo and S. K. Sharma). CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group LLC, Boca Raton, Florida. pp 303-313.

Report

Khanal, S. K., Turn S. and Kinoshita, C. 2009. Conversion Technology. In Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Report.  http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/bmpp/home.asp

Manual

Khanal, S. K. and Takara D. (2011). Bioenergy Laboratory Manual for High and Middle School Science Teachers.

Website: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/bioenergy/

Refereed Journal Papers

Year 2017

1.    Sawatdeenarunat, C., Nam, H., Adhikari, S., Raskin, L., Sung, S., and Khanal, S. K. Innovative decentralized biorefinery for lignocellulosic biomass: Integrating anaerobic digestion with thermochemical conversion. Environmental Science and Technology. (submitted).

2.    Nguyen, D., Wu, Z., Shrestha, S., Lee, P.-H., Raskin, L., and Khanal, S.K. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)-based micro-aeration for anaerobic digestion process stability: Evaluation of microbial communities and mechanism Environmental Science and Technology (submitted).

3.    K.C., Surendra, Ogoshi, R., Hashimoto, A., Khanal, S. K. High yielding tropical energy crops for bioenergy production: Effects of plant components, harvest years, and locations on biomass composition. GBC Bioenergy (in-review).

4.    K.C., Surendra, Ogoshi, R., Reinhardt-Hanisch, A., Oechsner, H., Hashimoto, A., Khanal, S. K. Anaerobic digestion of high yielding tropical energy crops for biogas production: Effects of crop types, locations and plant parts. Biotechnology for Biofuels (in-review).

5.    Oliveira, F.R., Patel, A.K., Jaisi, D., and Khanal, S.K. Environmental and agricultural applications of biochar: A review. Critical Review in Environmental Science and Technology (in-press).

6.    Wongkiew, S., Hu, Z., Chandran, K., Lee, J.W., and Khanal, S.K. 2017. Nitrogen transformations in aquaponic systems: A review. Aquacultural Engineering. 76:9-19. (Most downloaded paper).

7.    Sawatdeenarunat, C., Sung, S., and Khanal S. K. 2007. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production during anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass via micro-oxygenation.  Bioresource Technology (in-press).

8.    Shrestha, S., Fonoll, X., Khanal, S.K*. and Raskin, L*. Biological strategies for enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass during anaerobic digestion: Current status and future perspectives. Environmental Science and Technology. (submitted). (*corresponding authors; S. Shrestha’s M.S work under S. Khanal’s supervision at UHM).

9.  Jia, Y., Khanal, S.K., Zhang, H., Chen, G.H., and Lu, H. 2017. Sulfamethoxazole degradation in anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterial sludge system for wastewater treatment. Water Research. 119:12-20.

10. Kanjanarong, P., Giri, B.S., Jaisi, D.P., Oliveira, F.R., Boonsawang, Chaiprapat, S., Singh, R.S., Balakrishna, A., and Khanal, S.K. 2017. Removal of hydrogen sulfide generated during anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewater by wood-derived biochar: Evaluation of efficiency and mechanisms. Bioresource Technology. 234: 115–121

11. Nguyen, D., Sawatdeenarunat, C., and Khanal, S. K. Micro-aeration in anaerobic digestion: A critical review.  Bioresource Technology (submitted).

12. Wongkiew, S., Popp, B.N., and Khanal, S.K. Fate of nitrogen in floating-raft aquaponic systems using natural abundance nitrogen isotope. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation (in-press).

Year 2016

13. Yang, W., LU, H., Khanal, S.K., Zhao, Q., Meng, L., and Chen, G. H. 2016. Granulation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria for autotrophic denitrification. Water Research. 104: 507-519.

14. K C Surendra; Olivier, R., Tomberlin, J.K., Jha, R., and Khanal, S.K. 2016. Bioconversion of organic wastes into biodiesel and animal feed via insect farming. Renewable Energy. 98: 197-202.

15. Sawatdeenarunat, C. Nguyen, D., Surendra, K.C., Shrestha, S., Rajendran, K., Oechsner, H., Xie, L., and Khanal, S.K. 2016. Anaerobic biorefinery: current status, challenges, and opportunities. Bioresource Technology. 215: 304-313.

16. Zhang, M, Li, X., Khanal, S. K., and Zhou, Q. 2016. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: current status and opportunities. Bioresource Technology. 215.50-62.

17. Yin, Z, Xie, L., Khanal, S.K., and Zhou., Q.  2016. Interaction of organic carbon, reduced sulphur and nitrate in anaerobic baffled reactor for fresh leachate treatment. Environmental Technology. 37 (9); 1110-1121.

Year 2015

18. Duc, N, Gadhamshetty, V., and Khanal, S.K. 2015. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: a critical review. Bioresource Technology.193:513-522.

19. Tomberlin, J.K., van Huis, A., Benbow, M.E., Jordan, H., Astuti, D.A., Azzollini, D., Banks, I., Bava, V., Borgemeister, C., Cammack, J.A., Chapkin, R.S., Čičková, H., Crippen, T.L., Day, A., Dicke, M., Drew, D., Emhart, C., Epstein, M., Finke, M., Fischer, C. H., Gatlin, D., Grabowski, N. T., He, C., Heckman, L., Hubert, A., Jacobs, J., Joseph, J., Khanal, S. K., Kleinfinger, J. K., Klein, G., Leach, C., Liu, Y., Newton, G. L., Olivier, R.,  Pechal, J. L., Picard, C. J., Rojo, C., Roncarati, A., Sheppard, C., Tarone, A.M., Verstappen, B., Vickerson, A., Yang, H., Yen, A., Yu, Z., Zhang J., and Zheng, L. 2015. Protecting the environment through insect farming as a means to produce protein for use as livestock, poultry, and aquaculture feed, J. Insect Food Feed 1. 307–309.

20. Paudel, S.R., Choi, O., Khanal, S.K., Chandran, K., Kim, S.P., and Lee, J.W. 2015. Effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from intensive aquaculture system. Science of the Total Environment. 518-519:16-23.

21. Takara, D., and Khanal, S.K. 2015. Characterizing compositional changes of Napier grass at different stages of growth for biofuel and biobased products potential. Bioresource Technology.188:103-108.

22. Acevedo, J.C., Hernández, J. A. Valdés, C. F., and Khanal, S.K. 2015. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia. Bioresource Technology. 188:117-123.

23. Hu, Z., Lee, J.W., Chandran, K., Kim, S., Brotto, A.C., and Khanal, S.K. 2015. Effect of plant species on nitrogen recovery in aquaponics. Bioresource Technology.188:178-186.

24. Surendra, K. C., Sawatdeenarunat, C., Shrestha, S., and Khanal, S.K. 2015. Anaerobic digestion-based biorefinery for bioenergy and bio-based products. Industrial Biotechnology. 11 (2): 103-112.

25. Sawatdeenarunat, C., Surendra, K. C., Takara, D., Oechsner, H. and Khanal, S.K. 2015. Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and opportunities. Bioresource Technology. 178: 178–186.

26. Surendra, K. C. and Khanal, S.K. 2015. Effects of crop maturity and size reduction on digestibility and methane yield of dedicated energy crop. Bioresource Technology. 178:187–193.

27. Choi, I. S., Lee, Y.G., Khanal, S.K., Park, B.J., and Bae, H.-J. (2015). A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production. Applied Energy 140: 65–74.

Year 2014

28. Munasinghe, P.C., and Khanal, S. K. (2014). Evaluation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mass transfer and a correlation between myoglobin-protein bioassay and gas chromatography method for carbon monoxide determination. RSC Advances.  4 (71): 37575 – 37581.

29. K.C., S., Takara, D., Hashimoto, A.G., and Khanal, S. K. 2014. Biogas as a sustainable energy source for the developing countries: Opportunities and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 31: 846-859.

30. Zhen, H., Lee, J. W., Chandran, K., Kim, S., Sharma, K., and Khanal, S. K. 2014. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system. Science of the Total Environment. 470–471 (1): 193–200.

31. Rasmussen, M., Khanal, S. K., Pometto III, A.L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2014. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing. Bioresource Technology. 151 (2014) 284–290

Year 2013

32. K.C., S., Takara, D. Jasinski, J. and Khanal, S. K. 2013. Household anaerobic digester for bioenergy production in developing countries: opportunities and challenges. Environmental Technology. 34 (13 and 14): 1671-1689.

33. Devappa, R.K., Bingham, J-P., and Khanal, S.K. 2013. High performance liquid chromatography method for rapid quantification of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas seed. Industrial Crops & Products. 49: 211-219.

34. Nitayavardhana, S., Kerati, I, Pavasant, P., and Khanal, S. K. 2013. Production of protein-rich fungal biomass in an airlift bioreactor using vinasse as substrate. Bioresource Technology.133:301–306.

35. Zhen, H., Lee, J. W., Chandran, K., Kim, S., Sharma, K., and Khanal, S. K. 2013. Nitrous oxide emission from intensive aquaculture system. Bioresource Technology. 130: 314-320.

36. Lee, K.H., Park, K.Y., Khanal, S.K. Lee, J.W. 2013. Effects of Household Detergent on Anaerobic Fermentation of Kitchen Wastewater from Food Waste Disposer. Hazardous Materials. 244: 39-45.

Year 2012

37. Takara, D., Nitayavardhana, S., Munasinghe, P.C, K. C., S., and Khanal, S. K. 2012. Sustainable Bioenergy from Biofuel-Derived Residues. Water Environment Research. 84: 1568-1585.

38. Pal, A., Negi, V.S., Khanal, S. K., and Borthakur, D. 2012. Immunodetection of curcin in seed meal of Jatropha curcas using polyclonal antibody developed against curcin-L. Current Nutrition and Food Science. 8 (3):213-219.

39. Munasinghe, P., and Khanal, S. K. 2012. Syngas fermentation to biofuel: evaluation and modeling of carbon monoxide mass transfer using a composite hollow fiber (CHF) membrane bioreactor. Bioresource Technology.122: 130-136.

40. Zhen, H., Lee, J. W., Chandran, K., Kim, S., and Khanal, S. K. 2012. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture system: A review. Environmental Science and Technology. 46 (12):6470-6480.

41. Nitayavardhana, S., and Khanal, S. K. 2012. Biofuel residues ban or boon? Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 42 (1): 1-43.

Year 2011

42. Montalbo-Lomboy, M., Khanal, S. K., Van Leeuwen, J., Raman, D. R., and Grewell, D., 2011. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and economic evaluation of ultrasonic and jet cooking pretreatment of corn slurry. Biotechnology Progress. 27 (6): 1561-1569.

43. K. C., Surendra, Khanal, S. K., Shrestha, P., and Lamsal, B. P. 2011. Current Status of Renewable Energy in Nepal: Opportunities and Challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15 (1): 4107-4117.

44. Nitayavardhana, S., and Khanal, S. K. 2011. Biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion to animal feed: A sustainable option for a biodiesel refinery. Bioresource Technology. 102 (10): 5808-5814.

45. Takara D., and Khanal, S. K. 2011. Green processing of tropical banagrass into biofuel and biobased products: An innovative biorefinery approach. Bioresource Technology. 102 (2): 1587-1592.

Year 2010

46. Munasinghe, P.C., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Syngas fermentation to biofuel: Evaluation of carbon monoxide mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in different reactor configurations. Biotechnology Progress. 26 (6): 1616-1621.

47. Takara, D., Nitayavardhana, S., Pinowska, A., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Sustainable Bioenergy from Biofuel Residues and Wastes. Water Environment Research. 82 (10):1694-1719.

48. Mitra, D., Pometto III, A. L., Khanal, S. K., Byron, B.S., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2010. Value-added production of nisin from soy whey. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 162 (7): 1819-1828.

49. Nitayavardhana, S., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Innovative biorefinery concept for sugar-based ethanol industries: production of protein-rich fungal biomass on vinasse as an aquaculture feed ingredient. Bioresource Technology.101 (23): 9078-9085.

50. Shrestha, P., Khanal, S. K., Pometto, A. L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2010. Ethanol production via in-situ fungal saccharification and fermentation of mild alkali and steam pretreated corn fiber. Bioresource Technology. 101 (22): 8698-8705.

51. Rasmussen, M., Khanal, S. K., Pometto III, A.L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2010. Sequential saccharification of corn fiber and ethanol production by the brown rot fungus Gloephyllum trabeum. Bioresource Technology. 101(10): 3526–3533.

52. Montalbo-Lomboy, M., Khanal, S. K., Van Leeuwen, J., Raman, D. R. Dunn, L. Jr., and Grewell, D. 2010. Ultrasonic pretreatment of corn slurry for saccharification: A comparison of batch and continuous systems. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 17(5): 939-946.

53. Sindhuja, S., Khanal, S. K., Pometto, A. L., Jin, B., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2010. Use of microfungi for production of high value fungal by-products: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 40 (5):1-49.

54. Munasinghe, P.C., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Syngas fermentation to biofuels: Challenges and opportunities. Bioresource Technology. 101 (13): 5013-5022.

55. Seng, B., Khanal, S. K., and Visvanathan, C. 2010. Anaerobic digestion of combined ultrasound and chemical pretreated waste activated sludge. Environmental Technology. 31 (3): 257-265.

56. Nitayavardhana, S., Shrestha, P.  Rasmussen, M.,  Lamsal, B. P., Van Leeuwen, J., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Ultrasound improved ethanol fermentation from cassava chips in cassava-based ethanol plants. Bioresource Technology.10(8): 2741-2747.

57. Karki, B., Lamsal, B. P., Grewell, D., Jung, S., Pometto, A. L., Van Leeuwen, J., and Khanal, S. K. 2010. Enhancing Protein and Sugar Release from Defatted Soy Flakes using Ultrasound Technology. Journal of Food Engineering. 96(2): 270-278.

58. Montalbo-Lomboy, M., Johnson, L., Khanal, S. K., Van Leeuwen, J., and Grewell, D. 2010. Sonication of sugary-2 corn: A potential pretreatment to enhance sugar release. Bioresource Technology. 101(1): 351-358.

Year 2009

59. Shrestha, P., Khanal, S. K., Pometto III, A. L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2009. Corn fiber induced extracellular enzymes production by wood rot and soft rot fungi for subsequent fermentation of hydrolyzate to ethanol. J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57: 4145-4161.

60. Karki, B., Lamsal, B. P., Grewell, D., Pometto, A. L., Van Leeuwen, J.,  Khanal, S. K. and Jung, S. 2009. Functional Properties of Soy Protein Isolates Produced from Ultrasonicated Defatted Soy Flakes. J. of the American Oil Chemist Society. 86(10):1021-1028.

61. Jasti, N., Rasmussen, M., Khanal, S. K., Pometto III, A.L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2009. Influence of selected operating parameters on fungal biomass production in corn-ethanol wastewater. Journal of Environmental Engineering (ASCE).135 (11):1106-1114.

Year 2008

62. Jasti, N., Khanal, S. K.,  Pometto III, A.L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2008. Converting corn wet milling effluent into high-value fungal biomass in an attached growth bioreactor. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 101(6):1223-1233.

63. Sindhuja, S., Khanal, S. K., Pometto, A. L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2008. Ozone as a selective disinfectant for nonaseptic fungal cultivation on corn-processing wastewater. Bioresource Technology. 99(17): 8265-8272.

64. Khanal, S. K., Shrestha, P., Rasmussen, M., Lamsal, B.P., Visvanathan, C., Liu H., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2008. Bioenergy and biofuel production from wastes/residues of emerging biofuel industries. Water Environment Research. 80 (10): 1625 –1647.

65. Nitayavardhana, S., Rakshit, S. K., Grewell, D., Van Leeuwen, J., and Khanal, S. K. 2008. Ultrasound pretreatment of cassava chips to enhance sugar release for subsequent ethanol production. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 101(3): 487-496.

66. Shrestha, P., Rasmussen, M., Khanal, S. K., Pometto, A.L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2008. Solid-state fermentation of corn fiber by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and subsequent fermentation of hydrolysate into ethanol. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 56 (11): 3918 – 3924.

67. Xie, B., Khanal, S. K., Van Leeuwen, J., Veysey, S. W., and Thompson, M. L. 2008. Sorption of Steroidal Hormones By Two Iowa Soil Materials: Detection and Modeling. Soil Science. 173 (9): 602-612.

Year 2007

68. Khanal, S. K., Montalbo, M., Van Leeuwen, J., Srinivasan, G., and Grewell, D. 2007. Ultrasound enhanced glucose release from corn in ethanol plants. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 98 (5): 978-985.

69. Ho, J., Khanal, S. K., and Sung, S. 2007. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor for treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater at ambient temperature. Water Science and Technology. 55 (7): 79-86.

70. Khanal, S. K., Grewell D, Sung, S., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2007. Ultrasound applications in wastewater sludge pretreatment: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 37 (4): 277-313. (Most cited paper).

Year 2006

71. Khanal, S. K., Xie, B., Ong, S. K., Thompson, M. L., Sung, S., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2006. Fate, transport and biodegradation of natural estrogens in the environment and engineered systems - A review. Environmental Science and Technology. 40 (21): 6537-6546. (Most cited paper).

72. Chen, W.-H., Chen, S.-Y., Khanal S. K., and Sung, S. 2006. Kinetic study of biological hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 31(15): 2170-2178.

73. Akin, B., Khanal, S. K., Sung, S., Grewell, D., and van Leeuwen, J. 2006. Ultrasound pre-treatment of waste activated sludge: effect of specific energy input and total solids on sludge disintegration. Water Science and TechnologyWater Supply: 6(6): 35-42.

74. Khanal, S. K., and Huang, J.-C. 2006. Online oxygen control for sulfide oxidation in anaerobic treatment of high sulfate wastewater. Water Environment Research. 78 (4): 397-408.

75. Khanal, S. K., Chen, W.-H., Li, L., and Sung, S. 2006. Biohydrogen production in continuous flow reactor using mixed microbial culture. Water Environment Research. 78 (2): 110-117.

76. Foulkes, B., Khanal, S. K., and Sung, S. 2006. Bioleaching of zinc and copper from anaerobically digested swine manure: effect of sulfur levels and solid contents. Water Environment Research. 78 (2): 202-208.

77. Jasti, N., Khanal, S. K., Pometto, A. L., and Van Leeuwen, J. 2006. Fungal treatment of corn processing wastewater in an attached growth system. Water Science and Practice. 1 (3): 1-8.

Year 2005

78. Khanal, S. K., and Huang, J.-C. 2005. Effect of high influent sulfate on anaerobic wastewater treatment. Water Environment Research. 77(7): 3037-3046.

Year 2004

79. Khanal, S. K., Chen, W.-H., Li, L., and Sung, S. 2004. Biological hydrogen production: effects of pH and intermediate products. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 29(11):1123-1131.

80. Huang, J.-C., and Khanal, S. K. 2004. Treatment of high sulfate and high strength wastewater in a single stage anaerobic reactor. Water Science and Technology-Water Supply. 4 (1): 35-45.

Year 2003

81. Khanal, S. K., and Huang, J.-C. 2003. Anaerobic treatment of high sulfate wastewater with oxygenation to control sulfide toxicity. J. Environmental Engineering, ASCE. 129(12): 1104 1111.

82. Khanal, S. K., Shang, C., and Huang, J.-C. 2003. Use of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to control oxygen dosing for online sulfide oxidation in anaerobic treatment of high sulfate wastewater. Water Science and Technology. 47(12): 183-189.

83. Khanal, S. K., and Huang, J.-C. 2003. ORP based oxygenation for sulfide control in anaerobic treatment of high sulfate wastewater. Water Research. 37(9): 2053-2062.

84. Eckhardt, H., and Khanal, S. K. 1999. Suitability of Bangkok sewage and nightsoil sludges for agricultural use with emphasis on potentially toxic elements. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 34 (10): 2007-2021.