Black Oat
Avena strigosa

Summary

 


Common Name

Black Oat

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Avena strigosa Schreb.

Cultivars

The only cultivar currently available in the USA is 'SoilSaver' which is a joint release between Auburn University and IAPAR (Institute of Agronoly of Parana, Brazil). It was selected for increased cold tolerance by Auburn Univerisity and the USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory in Auburn, AL. from a population from Brazil known as 'IAPAR-61- Ibiporã.'

Seed Description

SoilSaver seeds have on average a 100 liter weight of 45 kg, one thousand seed weight of 15 g, yield of 800 kg/ha, and a predominant clear color or slightly tan.

Seedling Description

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mature Plant Description

Black Oats are tall and erect, with culms between 35 to 60 inches (89-152 cm) tall, varying with growing conditions. The mean plant height is 62 inches (158 cm), measured from soil surface to top of pannicle. Leaf blades are flat, about 4-8 mm wide, and numerous. The panical is one-sided, loose and open. Lemmas are scabrous toward the apex. Spikelets are usually 2-flowered, with florets not readily separating from the glumes. The awns are straight and dark. Reproduction is by sexual seed. In Alabama, fall plantings (November) result in seed ripening in mid May through early June.

Temperature

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Origin and Geographic Distribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Ecology

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Nutrients

Avoid excessive side dressing with nitrogen fertilizer to prevent lodging.

Soil pH

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Soil Type

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Shade Tolerance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Salinity Tolerance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Herbicide Sensitivity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Life Cycle

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seeding Rate

For Seed Production: 40 lb/A drilledFor Cover Crop: 50-90 lb/A

Seeding Depth

1/2 inch to 1 inch.

Seeding Method

Drill

Seeding Dates

Same as for common oat.

Inoculation

Not applicable.

Seed Cost

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Availability

This is a new release known as 'SoilSaver' and is currently available from the USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory in Auburn, AL. It is available in Brazil as 'IAPAR-61-Ibiporã.'

Days to Flowering

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Days to Maturity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Production

No information is available in this database on this topic. Expected seed yields range from 800 to 1400 lb/acre.

Seed Storage

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Growth Habit

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Maximum Height

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Root System

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Establishment

Black Oat is reported to be susceptible to lodging and excessive side dressing with nitrogen fertilizer should be avoided.

Maintenance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mowing

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Incorporation

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Harvesting

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses

Mixtures

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Biomass

No information is available in this database on this topic.

N Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Soil

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Livestock

Black oats can be used as a forage crop.

Pest Effects, Insects

Black Oats, like common oats, are prone to caterpillar and aphid infestations.

Pest Effects, Nematodes

In a greenhouse study of 17 plant species suitable for cover crops, black oat was shown to be resistant to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica).

Pest Effects, Diseases

Black Oats are reported to be moderately susceptible to leaf and stem rust and Helminthosporium.

Pest Effects, Weeds

Black oat has strong allelopathic activity, which is one reason it is used so much in no-till agriculture in S. America- provides excellent weed control. For cotton (which is sensitive to allelopathic activity) typically kill the cover 3 weeks before planting. (Reeves)

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

No information is available in this database on this topic.


Uses in the Pacific Region

None reported.

Uses in Hawai`i

Black oats are being field tested on a edible ginger trial on the island of Hawai`i.

References

1997. Aveia Preta IAPAR 61 Ibiporã. Instituto Agronomico do Parana. Londrina. Brazil. pp. 2.

1998. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Network, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA. pp. 212.

Reeves, D. Wayne. 1999. Personal Communication/ Request for Review of Crop Variety and/or Germplasm Release. USDA-ARS NSDL and Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University. USA.

Text last updated on 7/5/02

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These webpages were originally generated under a grant program from Western SARE entitled "Covering New Ground: Tropical Cover Crops for Improving Soil Quality" EW98-012 (1998-2002).