Date Last Edited: 08/24/2001
Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service
The appearance of several new dendrobium cut flower cultivars during the 1980s contributed greatly to the rapid expansion of Thailand's dendrobium industry. Around that time the Government of Okinawa began to encourage the cultivation of dendrobiums for export to Mainland Japan. With generous government subsidies along with the strong Japanese currency, Okinawan growers procured large quantities of relatively inexpensive mericloned cultivars from Thailand.
In Okinawa, dendrobiums are cultivated in glasshouses. The growers there were particularly interested in producing large whites, and large two-tone lavenders (pinks). The Okinawan demand for mericloned cultivars, in turn, spurred the development of new cultivars in Thailand.
The University of Hawaii-bred dendrobium cut flower cultivars have been essentially seed-propagated Jaquelyn Thomas-type amphidiploids not generally favored in Thailand or Okinawa. In order to keep abreast of the current status of cultivar development in Southeast Asia, the senior author made a trip to Thailand, Singapore and Okinawa in 1989 to observe and introduce cultivars for evaluation. At that time, Sonia was the predominant cultivar, while Ekapol, which was popular earlier, was already on the decline. Both of these two-tone lavender (pink) cultivars exhibited exceptional keeping quality. Only a few plants each of the new, desirable cultivars were obtained due to the limitation of greenhouse space at the University of Hawaii. Some desired cultivars were not available for purchase because the propagators had exclusive contracts with buyers from Okinawa.
Lavender, Purple, and Red-Purple
The summarized characteristics are presented in Table 1.
Sonia, the most popular cultivar of Thailand, is represented by several clones as well as mutants that arose in mericlone culture. The Sonias are characterized by:
Sabin and Queen Southeast produce attractive two-tone, red-purple flowers with contrasting white throat. The yields are low and sprays are short. They make attractive potted plants, but probably are not suitable for cut flower production in Hawaii.
Three clones with lavender (pink) flowers--Poh Kiew, Terri Ann Hasabe (Walter Oumae x Doreen) and Waipahu Pink--were evaluated. Both Poh Kiew and Waipahu Pink performed well, except the pseudobulbs of Waipahu Pink were excessively tall (60 inches). Terr i Ann Hasabe performed poorly with low yield, short sprays, poor vase life and high bud drop.
Table 1. Average characteristics of lavender, purple and red-purple dendrobium accessions. Accession Raceme/ Raceme No.Flowers Half- Flower Bud Pseudobulb Number Plant/ Length Per Raceme Life Width Drop Height year (in.) (days) (in.) (%) (in.) Sonia, Bom 17 D411 4.0 20.9 7.1 24.5 3.0 7.8 37.0 Sonia, Bom 28 D425 7.3 19.9 8.6 19.8 3.5 4.6 32.5 Sonia, Bom 16 mutant D453 1.0 26.6 7.5 12.3 3.2 66.7 27.0 Sonia, Bom 28 mutant D454 2.5 24.4 10.6 19.0 3.5 17.7 39.0 Sonia, Chao Praya D444 3.0 26.7 7.3 19.0 3.2 2.2 25.0 Sonia, Red D438 3.0 20.3 10.6 21.3 4.0 17.5 30.0 Ekapol, Small Panda D409 7.5 22.6 7.1 13.7 2.8 13.7 -- Ekapol, Big Panda D420 3.0 -- 6.0 -- 2.2 5.2 -- Ekapol, Red No. 1 D439 7.0 19.4 9.7 17.2 3.0 3.3 42.0 Ekapol, Genting D450 1.5 25.1 10.3 19.0 3.0 0 42.5 Queen Southeast D458 4.5 21.0 9.0 11.0 2.2 4.1 24.0 Sabin D424 2.0 15.0 5.7 21.0 3.0 5.9 18.5 Sabin D430 1.5 21.6 5.0 32.0 3.5 0 22.5 Poh Kiew D419 4.6 20.9 14.1 19.2 2.8 4.3 30.0 Terri Ann Hasabe D434 2.0 6.9 12.1 7.0 2.8 9.3 31.0 Waipahu Pink D441 5.5 20.6 12.7 11.8 2.8 4.5 60.5 Uniwai Pearl* UH 306 12.0 26.0 20.2 12.7 2.5 1.7 41.1 * Data from Kamemoto, H. and C.A. Bobisud that appeared in the Horticulture Digest September, 1979, prsented here for comparative purposes.
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The characteristics of several white clones are presented in Table 2. Every accession showed at least one defect.
Table 2. Average characteristics of white dendrobium accessions. Accession Raceme/ Raceme No.Flowers Half- Flower Bud Pseudobulb Number Plant/ Length Per Raceme Life Width Drop Height year (in.) (days) (in.) (%) (in.) Waipahu D426 4.0 27.2 12.0 19.0 2.8 3.9 31.0 Jonnie Osterholt D431 5.0 24.2 10.5 12.0 2.5 12.1 37.0 Jonnie Osterholt D446 5.0 24.8 11.0 12.8 2.5 6.4 28.0 Terri Ann Hasabe D435 4.7 29.2 14.7 15.7 3.0 2.0 49.0 Terri Ann Hasabe D442 9.0 29.4 15.2 18.4 2.5 0.9 38.5 Walter Oumae X Waipahu D451 7.0 25.0 12.7 13.6 2.5 14.4 61.5 BM White D436 4.0 21.5 11.6 15.7 2.8 13.2 28.5 Pattaya Beauty D437 4.5 25.0 13.3 13.3 3.0 8.0 41.0 Pattaya Beauty, T Orchids D440 4.0 22.6 13.1 12.0 2.8 7.0 32.0
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Chromosome numbers were determined for the accessions (Table 3). Most of the accessions were tetraploid (2n=76). Several were hypertetraploid (the tetraploid number, 2n=76, plus a few additional chromosomes, e.g., 2n=80), hypertriplo id (triploid, 2n=57, plus a few additional chromosomes, e.g., 2n=59) and a large number of mixoploids (accessions having cells with differing chromosome numbers).
Among the Sonias, two were tetraploid, two were hypertetraploid and two were mixoploid. The parents of Sonia were Caesar (probably an amphidiploid) and tetraploid Tomie Drake, and therefore the resulting offspring were expected to be tetraploid. The hyp ertetraploid and mixoploid Sonias, as well as mixoploid Waipahu (D426), Jonnie Osterholt (D446) and Terri Ann Hasabe (D435), probably resulted from mutations in tissue culture.
Because the accessions are advanced generation hybrids with mixed genomes, they are probably not suitable for the production of seed-propagated cultivars. However, for seedling selection and subsequent clonal propagation through tissue culture, tetraploi ds and hypertetraploids might be useful for further breeding.
Table 3. Chromosome numbers of accessions. Accession Chromosome Number Cultivar Parents of cultivar Number D411 Sonia, Bom 17 Caesar x Tomie Drake 81 D421-1 Sonia, Bom 28 Caesar x Tomie Drake 89 D425-3 Sonia, Bom 28 Caesar x Tomie Drake 76 D453 Sonia, Bom 16 mutant Caesar x Tomie Drake 81 D454 Sonia, Bom 28 mutant Caesar x Tomie Drake 71, 76 D444 Sonia, Chao Praya Caesar x Tomie Drake 76 D438 Sonia, Red Caesar x Tomie Drake 76 D409 Ekapol, Small Panda Lim Hepa x Tomie Drake 76 D420 Ekapol, Big Panda Lim Hepa x Tomie Drake 76 D439 Ekapol, Red No. 1 Lim Hepa x Tomie Drake 76 D450 Ekapol, Genting Lim Hepa x Tomie Drake 80 D458 Queen Southeast Hawaiian Beauty x Tomie Drake 76 D424 Sabin (not known) 80 D430 Sabin (not known) 80 D419 Poh Kiew Doreen x Bodhi Ngern 80 D441 Waipahu Pink Walter Oumae x Waipahu Beauty 76 D426 Waipahu Valley King x D. stratiotes 60, 70, 76 D446 Jonnie Osterholt D. phalaenopsis x Walter Qumae 76, 78 D435 Terri Ann Hasabe Walter Oumae x Doreen 58, 59 D442 Terri Ann Hasabe Walter Oumae x Doreen 59 D451 Walter Oumae x Waipahu Walter Oumae x Waipahu 76 D436 BM White (not known) 76 D437 Pattaya Beauty Margaret Joan Fell x Ng Eng Cheow 76 D440 Pattaya Beauty, T Orchids Margaret Joan Fell x Ng Eng Cheow 76
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T. D. Amore,
A. R. Kuehnle, firstname.lastname@example.org
and N. C. Sugii
Department of Horticulture, CTAHR
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