|Landscape, Floriculture, and Ornamentals News||
Date Last Edited: 08/24/2001
Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service
No. 2, December, 1997
David Hensley, firstname.lastname@example.org
Kenneth Leonhardt, email@example.com
CTAHR Extension Horticulture Specialists
Kent Kobayashi, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dept. of Horticulture, CTAHR, Univ. of Hawaii
Floral Status of Malaysia and Mexico
Ken Leonhardt, email@example.com
FloraCulture International is a trade magazine published by International Horticulture Publications Co. of Batavia Illinois. It has often profiled a country whose floral industry is emerging or undergoing significant change. Some of these events may impact the floral industry in Hawaii and the U.S. at large. Some points that caught my attention in two such articles are restated here in brief.
Here it is pointed out that floral exports have increased from $7 million in 1988 to $20 million in 1994 , due in large part to government initiated policies intended to bolster cut flower exports. A variety of tax incentives are available to local and foreign investors. The government has supported growers participation in international trade shows and exhibitions by covering travel and freight costs, supports an overseas sales office, and brings in foreign consultants with production and marketing expertise. Readily available construction materials and good communication and transportation infrastructure are reasons to expect continued industry growth.
Of interest to Hawaii orchid growers is the government's ambition to increase orchid cut flower production in the lowland state of Johor to over 2,900 hectares (7,200 acres) and, "replace Thailand as the major cut orchid producer in Asia." Targeted markets include Singapore, Japan, Australia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and South Korea. Potted orchid production has not gone overlooked as several Taiwanese phalaenopsis producers are expected to joint venture with Malaysian producers this year.
This article reviews production and marketing strengths and weaknesses of Mexico's cut flower industry and identifies deficiencies that need to be overcome in order to be more competitive in export markets. Mexico produces cut flowers on over 10,000 hectares (24,700 acres) of mostly open fields. Greenhouse production is recorded at only 425 hectares (1050 acres). From this area, 15 million tons of flowers were produced in 1994 of which approximately 90% was consumed within the country during celebrations, holidays, and everyday life. Despite NAFTA, suitable climate and geography, and a large and low cost labor force, Mexico has not yet realized much of its potential as a flower exporter, although the U.S. imported $24.6 million in flowers in 1995 which accounted for over 90% of Mexico's flower exports. Rose, carnation and traditional flowers make up the bulk, although modest and declining amounts of anthurium, dendrobium orchid, and "other orchid" are listed.
The Mexican government recognizes the industry shortcomings and has initiated technical and financial programs to assist growers. Universities and research centers are said to offer training and technical support. Many of these programs are coordinated through several local, regional, and national organizations such as the Mexican Flower Council. The need to improve crop culture including pest and disease management, and postharvest management and infrastructure are emphasized.
International Flower Bulb Center Now On-line
The International Flower Bulb Center, Hillegom, The Netherlands, is now on-line. In-depth information on trends and variety performance as well as how-to information, news and feature stories and photographs are just a few of the features offered.
1996 Netherlands Bulb Industry Statistics
9 billion bulbs produced annually
Source: Netherlands Flower Bulb Information Center, Brooklyn, NY
Special Local Need (SLN) Labelings for Agriculture Chemicals in Hawaii
New. Plumerias; Monterey Florel® Brand Pistill (Lawn and Garden Products; 264-263-54705); HI-960006 new 9/23/96-9/22/01. Promotes leaf drop. Promotes winter flower production in warm climate.
Expired. Carnations; Plantvax® 75W (Uniroyal; 400-144); HI-810014 expired 2/13/97.
David Kuack, editor
Florida flower and foliage growers may soon have a new pest to deal with: Hibiscus mealybug, Maconel-licoccus hirsutus, is traveling through the Caribbean toward Florida, said Univ. of Florida entomologist Lance Osborne. The insect has put growers out of business and wiped out entire forests in other countries. It has hundreds of ornamental plant hosts: hibiscus, chrysanthemum, allamanda, begonia, ficus, palms, poinsettia and pothos. Osborne said arrival of the mealybug is inevitable and could come into Florida on imported plant material or be carried by a hurricane.
Eileen Herring, firstname.lastname@example.org
Six water-soluble fertilizers were applied at two different concentrations to young seedlings of Phalaenopsis Tam Butterfly. After seven months, leaf span, leaf size, total leaf area, and shoot and root fresh weight were measured. No differences were found between the various fertilizers at either concentration. The higher concentration application (200 ppm) for all fertilizers produced wider leaf spread, more and larger leaves, and greater total leaf areas. This study suggests that if Phalaenopsis orchids are grown in media having good moisture and nutrient retention capacity, any balanced fertilizer will produce good growth. Since flowering is directly related to leaf production and expansion, higher fertilizer rates are suggested to produce rapid growth in young plants. Fertilizer concentrations can be reduced for mature plants in order to avoid producing excessively large plants which increases production costs.
Areca palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Wendl.) performance as low light interior plants was evaluated by using varying production light and fertilizer levels for 8 months, then placing the plants in interior conditions for 3 months and measuring the light compensation point, chlorophyll concentration and carbohydrate reserves. Three light levels (481, 820 and 1231 mmol/m 2 /s) were combined with three application rates of 201020 fertilizer (0.015, 0.03 and 0.06 oz/2 gal pot or 440, 880, and 1660 mg/6.25 L pot). The interior conditions tested were 20 mmol/m2/s for 12 hours daily at 70oF (21oC) and a relative humidity of 50%. Previous studies have shown that plants which adapt well to low light interior conditions exhibit anatomical and physiological changes during exposure to low light levels which result in lower light compensation points and higher chlorophyll concentrations. In this study, regardless of the production treatments used, areca palms did not exhibit these adaptations to low light and instead used internal carbohydrate reserves for growth. For this reason, areca palm is not recommended for extended interior use under the low light levels characteristic of most homes and commercial spaces.
The root distribution of seedlings of Acoelorrhaphewrightii, Carpentaria acuminata, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Livistona chinensis, Phoenix roebellenii, and Washingtonia robusta were grown in nontreated containers of in containers treated on their interior surfaces treated with 25, 50, or 100 g/liter copper hydroxide. Seedlings of all species grown in treated containers had reduced circling or matted roots at the container wall-growing medium interface. The distribution of roots was specific and was significantly influenced by the rate of copper hydroxide. Copper treatment did not induce visual signs of copper toxicity, not differences in shoot growth, nor differences in the number of higher-order lateral roots.
Performance of nitrate N fertilizers on bermuda grass in humid tropical conditions. M.D. Hamilton, F. Cruz, and J. McConnell. College of Agriculture and Life Sci., Univ. Guam, UOG Station, Mangilao, Guam.
The performance and leaching of six nitrogen fertilizers on bermudagrass was studied under humid tropical conditions. Ammonium nitrate was applied to the turf monthly at rates between 0.25 and 6 lb/1000 sq ft. Performance was gauged on clipping dry weights, color evaluation, and visual ratings. Leachates were checked for nitrate levels. A rate of 2 lb/1000 sq ft produced quality turf while yielding a minimum of nitrate leaching. Rates of 4 and 6 lb/month resulted in the highest nitrate leachings without an increase in quality. Rates of less than 2 lb had less than 9 ppm nitrate leachate, but produced unacceptable quality. Nutralene, Nitroform, sulfur coated urea, IBDU, and ammonium nitrate were applied at 2 lb/1000 sq ft/month. Slow release forms were applied as a 3 month dose. Nutralene, SCU, and Nitroform had peak nitrate leaching levels 2 weeks after application. IBDU had peak nitrate levels after 4 weeks. Turf quality diminished at 6 weeks.
Think About Gypsum Before Spending Your Money
Gypsum is often advertised as the magic bullet to improve the structure of clay soil. This is not necessarily true. Any improvement in soil structure from gypsum only occurs when there is much more sodium than calcium in the soil. In Hawaii, we do have some soils with high levels of sodium and applying gypsum may help in those cases.
On soils that are not high in sodium, the gypsum does little good. Instead, consider aerifying and top dressing with compost. Aerify with large tines and punch 20 to 40 holes per square foot. Top dress with a mature compost and rake or drag in.
Tree Selector Computer Program Available
A program to aid in selecting tropical trees is now available. This program is designed to work on Macintosh computers using HyperCard. It provides information on several trees in Hawaii and recommends trees based on user specified criteria. The text of the information was adapted from How to Select a Tree and How to Plant a Tree by Mary Young, Honolulu Botanic Garden. The program is part of the Farmer' Bookshelf developed by Kent Kobayashi and Skip Bittenbender. The tree selector was adapted to the Farmer's Bookshelf series by Kim Oshiro, David Hensley, and Julie Yogi, Department of Horticulture, CTAHR. This program does not run on DOS or Windows machines.
If you would like to obtain a free copy of the Tree Selector for Macintosh, contact David Hensley, Department of Horticulture, UHM, 3190 Maile Way, St. John 102, Honolulu, HI 96822-2279. Ph. 808-956-2150. E-mail: email@example.com.
Dendrobium Icy Pink 'Sakura'
A new Dendrobium flower color, Icy Pink, was first encountered in our breeding program in 1977 from across between a two tone lavender D. Jaquelyn Thomas, O580-4N, and a white D. phalaenopsis, K43-14. One offspring, K360-8, produced a pale pink flower among other siblings with two tone lavender flowers. K360-8 was then crossed to tetraploid D. phalaenopsis, W15-6. Among the offspring, K816-32 produced tinged flowers that were slightly darker pink than the K360-8 parent. Subsequently, K816-32 was self pollinated with the objective of obtaining an even darker pink tinged flower.D. Icy Pink 'Sakura' (K1224-6) was the result.
K1224-6 appeared to possess some desirable qualities for commercial cut flower production, and therefore was micropropagated for further observation and evaluation in glasshouse and saranhouse environments. The performance of the majority of characteristics were better for plants grown in the glasshouse (Table 1).
Table 1. Characteristics of K1224-6 in glasshouse and saranhouse. Characteristics Glasshouse Saranhouse Flower width (in) 2.9 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.6**z Pedicel length (in) 2.3 ± 0.4 2.6 ± 0.7** No. flowers per spray 14.7 ± 1.7 12.8 ± 1.4** Scape length (in) 7.9 ± 1.2 8.2 ± 0.9 ns Raceme length (in) 23.3 ± 5.5 19.4 ± 4.1** % bud drop 0.78 ± 2.1 1.7 ± 2.3** % sprays with bud drop 6.5 ± 11.5 13.5 ± 15.9** No. sprays per plant 10.9 ± 2.3 8.7 ± 3.0** Pseudobulb height (in) 35.8 ± 5.9 30.4 ± 6.3** z ** significantly different at 99% level; ns - not significantThe desirable features of K1224-6 are:
Table 2. Monthly spray yields of K1224-6 in glasshouse (G2) and saranhouse (S), based on 47 plants in glasshouse and 57 plants in saranhouse. 1994 1995 1996 TOTAL G2 S G2 S G2 S G2 S JAN 8 15 21 9 29 24 FEB 9 13 8 19 17 32 MAR 11 19 7 4 18 23 APR 6 3 5 7 11 10 MAY 4 3 11 13 15 16 JUN 2 2 18 6 20 8 JUL 0 2 6 18 6 20 AUG 6 9 6 3 38 66 50 78 SEP 15 25 12 15 29 52 56 92 OCT 13 26 45 48 106 57 164 131 NOV 6 9 45 0 42 20 93 29 DEC 2 6 10 0 14 40 26 46 TOTAL 42 75 158 123 305 311 505 509The undesirable feature of K1224-6 is the long, droopy sprays, especially when sprays are kept beyond the three fourths maturity stage. This problem can be alleviated by harvesting sprays when only 50% of the flowers are open.
Because of the unique and attractive "new" dendrobium color, the parent of K1224-6 is being registered as Dendrobium Icy Pink. By the rules of orchid nomenclature any offspring resulting from selfing the parent, K816-32, must retain the same name; hence the progeny K1224 must also be called D. Icy Pink. Since K1224-6 is a clone, Sakura (cherry blossom) was chosen as the cultivar name.
Arnold H. Hara, firstname.lastname@example.org
Root mealybugs occur only on roots of their host plants. Because they are undetected, occurring below-ground, root mealybugs can be a serious pest. Currently, the Hawaiian Islands have 7 species of root or hypogaeic mealybugs. The most pestiferous species have been the coffee root mealybug, Geococcus coffeae, and Rhizoecus hibisci. Plant host range of these root mealybugs are very wide, infesting grasses, palms, citrus, cyperus, pineapple, coffee, mango and syngonium.
In pots, root mealybugs occur throughout the root mass; however, they are concentrated between the root-ball and the pot. Infestations of root mealybugs are noticeable only if the root-ball is removed from the pot. The white waxy material is the most important sign of root mealybug infestation. Mealybugs secrete lots of white waxy material that covers their bodies. Female mealybugs lay eggs or give birth to live young (crawlers).If eggs are laid, they usually hatch in less than 24 hours. Crawlers are the dispersal stage and are highly mobile. Once the crawlers find a suitable site, they settle down and begin to feed on roots with their sucking mouthparts. The entire life cycle ranges from 2-4 months depending on the species. Adults live from 27-57 days, also depending on species.
Because the root mealybug is very difficult to control, every effort should be made to prevent spread and establishment. The following practices are recommended to prevent spread and establishment:
Research by the University of Hawaii, CTAHR, has demonstrated that insecticides and/or a hot water dip are effective treatments. Dursban WP applied as a liquid drench and Marathon G are effective against root mealybug. Watering plants prior to drench application will significantly reduce problems with phytotoxicity. Consult the Cooperative Extension Service, Hawaii Department of Agriculture or a reputable agrochemical professional for a specific product registered for use. Submerging potted Rhapis palms in 120° F (49° C) hot water until the internal root ball temperature reaches 115° F(46° C) is 100% effective in killing root mealybugs. Hot water at 120° F does not significantly affect potted Rhapispalms.
For more information or a detailed report contact Arnold Hara in Hilo at Ph: (808) 974-4105, Fax: (808) 974-4110 or e-mail: email@example.com.
Fungal Disease Control of Orchids
This is a favorable time of the year for fungal diseases on orchids. Transmission of fungal spores is usually by wind, water, contaminated equipment and plant parts, and occasionally carried by insects and nematodes. Rain and high humidity conditions contribute to fungal spore germination and infection.
Fungal diseases of orchids include flower and foliar spots and blights, pseudostem and root rots, and damping-off of seedlings.
The first level of defense is to start out with pathogen-free planting material and employ high levels of sanitation in all cultural practices. This includes removal of dead and infected plant parts including fallen leaves which can be a source of innoculum. Use new pots or disinfest pots to be reused. Always use clean new media. Orchid media should be very well drained and freely aerated. When an organic medium breaks down water retention becomes excessive and aeration inadequate. Fungal diseases of the root system are almost certain to follow. Flame or surface disinfest tools that come in contact with plant tissues.
Irrigate plants early in the day to allow for leaves to be dry at night. Ensure that greenhouses have adequate ventilation and/or air circulation to minimize still, humid conditions that are favorable to disease development. Inspect roofs and gutters to ensure that there are no leaks that might splash onto plants.
Fungicides can be used to prevent infection. Proper equipment calibration and fungicide application are essential. Follow application instructions and precautions on the bag. The following is a list of fungicides available for use by orchid growers in Hawaii.
(Prepared Nov. 14, 1997) Disclaimer: This list was prepared as a guide for general use by orchid growers in Hawaii. Because of frequent changes to registrations, this list may be inaccurate. Always consult the label for proper use and registration of the fungicide. Current registrations can be found on the World Wide Web at the Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System.
Crop registered under/Fungicide Type* Remarks *P=Preventive; C=Curative Dendrobium Bayleton 25 T/O P/C Fusarium, anthracnose, others Dithane F-45, M-45 DF, WF; Fore, Fore Flowable; Manzate 200 P Mancozeb; all fungi Metam, Vapam, Nemasol n/a General-purpose soil and media fumigant Ornalin Contact Fungicide P/C Botrytis; contact Orchids Turban, Terrazole P Phytophthora and pythium Flowers Aliette WDG Fungicide P/C Phytophthora and pythium Bayleton 25 T&O P/C Fusarium, anthracnose, others Botran 75W Fungicide P Botrytis Champion WP, Kocide LF P Copper hydroxide Clearys 3336 G, WP; Domain FL; Fungo Flo, P/C Botrytis, anthracnose, phyllosticta, others Cooke Daconil Lawn & Garden, Ortho Daconil 2787 P Most fungi Ford's Procide Systemic P/C Metam, Vapam, Nemasol n/a General-purpose soil and media fumigant Protect T&O P Mancozeb; most fungi Rubigan 50WSP, EC P Botrytis Subdue 5G P/C Phytophthora and pythium Terraclor 400 Flowable Ornamental Soil Fungicide; Turfcide 10% Granular T&O; Revere P Rhizoctonia, sclerotium, etc. Ornamentals Banner P/C Rhizoctonia, anthracnose Chipco 26019 P Many fungi Clorox n/a Disinfestant, benches, etc. Metam, Vapam, Nemasol n/a General purpose soil and media fumigant PT 2000 Greenshield P General purpose disinfectant Rubigan EC P Botrytis Terraguard P/C Rhizoctonia, cylindrocladium, other fungi Triathlon n/a General purpose disinfectant
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Look at Maintenance Before Planting
David Hensley, firstname.lastname@example.org
Did you know that much more money is spent maintaining a landscape than on planning, designing, the plants, and contract installation combined? Evaluating a proposed design for "maintainability" before it is installed will save money and time. Eliminate maintenance problems before they are installed and reduce the frustration level of the people that must keep up with the demands of a poorly planned landscape.
Look for problems on site and planting plans and correct them before they come back to haunt the designer, the contractor, the maintenance personnel, the owner, and the property manager. Consider these changes to sites to save headaches.
Copper Hydroxide Repels Slugs
Arnold H. Hara
Copper hydroxide is usually used as a fungicide, but also formulated as a root growth regulator that prevents root-bound containers. Recently, CTAHR discovered that the copper hydroxide coating is very repellent to the two-striped slug, Vernoicella cubensis. Plastic pots, grow bags, and weed mats coated with a special formulation of copper hydroxide (Spinout®, Griffin Corporation) significantly repelled slugs. For example, in one test, pots were placed in a contained area (15 sq ft) with 500 slugs; copper hydroxide coated pots harbored an average of 0 slugs per plot, while uncoated pots harbored an average of 24 slugs per pot.
Presently, copper hydroxide coated products are NOT registered for use as a molluscicide, but registered only as a root growth regulator
For more information or a detailed report, contact Arnold Hara in Hilo at Ph. (808) 974-4105, Fax: (808) 974-4110 or e-mail: email@example.com.
A Technique for Acclimatizing Plants from Tissue Culture
Susan P. Martin1, Carol A. Bobisud1, and Terry T. Sekioka2, firstname.lastname@example.org
Tissue culture plantlets sometimes do not survive when transferred out of the vessel into harsher greenhouse environments. Major changes involve humidity, light, nutrient source and the presence of pathogens. Plantlets in the flak range from larger to smaller, weaker plantlets. Many times, it is the smaller, weaker plant that dies.
A technique to increase the changes of survival of these plants has been developed by our laboratory. A "terrarium-like" plastic bubble is used to acclimatize and growth the plants from the flask prior to transferring to the greenhouse. Presently, the technique used to step-acclimatize the small cultured plants is in a plastic bag of moisten sphagnum. After the plantlets are planted, a mist of water is sprayed into the plastic bag. Air is blown into the bag to form a big bubble, and the opening of the bag is twisted and taped closed. Bags of plants are then placed on illuminated shelves. Plants are kept in this bag until they are of adequate size and/or hardiness is attained.
Three experiments were conducted to investigate suitable planting media for this technique. Plants used were pineapples clones t-132, t-0, t-155, and ttl-8, all obtained from the USDA ARS Plant Germplasm Repository, Hilo, Hawaii. Potting media used were perlite, sphagnum, and peat-lite in experiments 1 and 2; sphagnum, peat, and a vermiculite-perlite mixture were used in experiment 3. A random sampling of 50 plants were selected for each bag of medium. There were 3 treatments with 3 bags per treatment for each experiment. Fresh weight of the plans was taken before and after the growth period of the experiment. Dry weight was also recorded at the end of the experiment as was the number of surviving plants in each bag.
Because of small numbers of data and the non-normality of the data, the analysis of variance was not utilized. Means were evaluated. It appeared that in all of the experiments perlite or a perlite-vermiculite mixture was a poorer medium for plant growth, but not necessarily for survival. This could be because it is not as good a nutrient source. Survival may be more dependent upon factors other than medium (such as moisture in the bag, size of the plants, etc.). Peat, sphagnum, or a peat-lite medium all showed to be adequate and suitable media for growth using this technique. The advantage of this technique is the higher survival percentage of the smaller, weaker plants in the transition from the flask to pot. However, the additional step of planting in the plastic bag prior to planting in pots requires a longer time interval.
Mulch is a Tool
David Hensley, email@example.com
In landscape maintenance, mulch is a tool to be used by professionals. It is as important as a mower or a pruner in keeping the plants healthy and for reducing labor. Mulch reduces water loss, controls weeds, moderates soil temperatures, and reduces soil compaction. Some of us, however, forget how many landscape maintenance problems can be solved by mulching.
Mulch is any material used to cover the soil. I prefer organic mulches (bark or compost) to inorganic materials such as stone. While inorganic mulches provide the same benefits and do not require periodic replacement, they do nothing to improve the soil. Organic mulches break down yield humus that improves the soil's physical and chemical properties. Organic mulches appear more natural and less formal than stone. Organic mulches, however, must be replenished annually.
Mulching a planting bed with 3 inches of a quality mulch reduces weed growth by up to 90 percent. Budget limitations sometimes reduce the amount of mulch that is actually applied and may limit the amount replaced. This is "voodoo economics." It saves a little money up front and spends more than saved later to remove weeds and deal with problems. The owner will be money ahead to spend the amount needed for organic material to be incorporated into the bed and used as a mulch. Unfortunately, most maintenance people have little say in this.
Replacing the grass and soil around a tree, sign, or other objects in the lawn with mulch eliminates trimming and speeds mowing. Creating a mulch barrier around trees also protects them from string "trimmeritus."
Organic mulch can be used as a construction cushion when the landscape or turf must be crossed with heavy equipment. The layer of organic mulch cushions the soil and greatly reduces compaction. The mulch can be tilled in as a soil amendment when replanting the turf or landscape after construction.
Mulching is a very cost effective means of conserving water. Mulching is one of the basic tenents of Xeriscaping. It eliminates water loss through evaporation and by preventing competing weeds. Water percolation into the soil is improved by the mulch so greater benefit is received from irrigation.
Organic mulches are not fertilizers, however. Organic mulches provide a small amount of minor nutrients as they break down, but do not supply significant amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, or other major nutrients. In fact, organic mulches can compete for nitrogen with landscape plants. The organisms that breakdown organic matter need nitrogen to grow and live. The microbes are more efficient nitrogen scavengers than trees and shrubs. This is not a problem unless (1) the fertility of the site is very low and there is no fertilizer program to supply nitrogen, or (2) if the mulch is "raw" or will decompose rapidly. I have seen nitrogen deficiency symptoms when raw or uncomposted bark or sawdust is used.
Mulches are a valuable resource and tool for the professional landscape manager. Select and use them to reduce labor and save money.
Organic Landscape Mulches
Replacement life (seasons) Availability Notes Leaves <1 high Unattractive, tend to mat, can harbor mice, blow, and be a fire hazard. Longevity depends on species but all are short. Manure <1 med. to Not in my landscape! Source of high weeds and odor unless composted. Composted manure makes a high quality pleasing mulch. Lawn 1 high Unsightly, smelly, pack and tend to clippings repel water, can damage tender plants during decomposition and because of herbicide residues. Shredded 1-2 high Usually excellent and preferred bark material--texture depends on processing, color goes to dark brown or gray with time; select composted material if possible; fir, redwood last several seasons; pine can float. Hardwood bark also works well. Sawdust or 1 medium Will require additional nitrogen shavings unless composted or "fortified". Can float and blow. Redwood sawdust common as an amendment and lasts longer. Pine 1-2 medium Widely used in South. Medium to fine needles texture, brown color. Acid. Peat moss 1-2 high Expensive as a mulch! Can float. Fine texture, brown color. Holds a lot of water--avoid in wet areas.
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Some Sources of Horticultural Books, Videos, and Software
Write, phone, or fax for free catalogs. Please let us now of others--thanks.
A.C. Burke & Co. 2554 Lincoln Blvd., Suite 1058, Marina Del Rey, CA 90291. Ph. (310) 574-2770, Fax (310) 574-2771.
American Nurseryman. 77 W. Washington St., Suite 2100, Chicago, IL 60602-2904. Ph. (800) 621-5727, Fax (312) 782-3232.
Ball Publishing. P.O. Box 247, St. Charles, IL 60174-0247. Ph. (888) 888-0013, Fax (888) 888-00014.
C&P Press, Inc. 888 Seventh Avenue, 28th floor, New York, NY 10106. Ph. (212) 621-4601, Fax (212) 399-1122.
Creative Educational Video. 1020 SE Loop 289, Lubbock, TX 79404. Ph. (800) 922-9965, Fax (800) 243-6398.
Edward R. Hamilton Bargain Books. P.O. Box 5005, Falls Village, CT 06031-5005.
Forestry Suppliers, Inc. P.O. Box 8397, Jackson, MS 33284-8397. Ph. (800) 647-5398, Fax (800) 543-4203.
Grower Talks Bookshelf. 415 Bennett Rd., Elk Grove Village, IL 60007. Ph. (888) 888-0013, Fax (888) 888-0014.
Iowa State University Press. 2121 S. State Ave., Ames, IA 50014-8300. Ph. (800) 862-6657, Fax (515) 292-3348.
Prentice Hall. One Lake St., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458, Fax (201) 236-7758.
San Lius Video Publishing. P.O. Box 6715, Los Osos, CA 93412. Ph. (805) 528-8322, Fax (805) 528-7727.
The Haworth Press, Inc. 10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13905-1580. Ph. (800) 342-9678, Fax (800) 895-0582.
Thompson Publications. P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791. Ph. (209) 435-2163, Fax (209) 435-8319.
Timber Press. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204. Ph. (800) 327-5680, Fax (503) 227-3070.
New CTAHR Publications
A new group of publications for the landscape industry began with Selecting a tree care professional (Landscape category publication L-1). Two other titles in the series are Watering trees (L-2) and Mulching for healthier landscape trees (L-3). These publications are designed to be of interest to homeowners as well as landscape professionals.
Some technical publications written for professionals in the landscape, ornamentals, and floriculture industries are include n the CTAHR publication category Horticulture Research Notes. Two recent titles are Substitutions for peat in Hawaii nursery production (HRN-11) and Substituting Hawaiian composts for peat in growing media for hibiscus (HRN-12).
These new publications are available on-line at the CTAHR website and go to "Publications."
Also, quite a few of the Ornamentals and Flowers fact sheets on plants useful for landscapes, including native Hawaiian species, have been revised during the past year. The most current versions are available to be downloaded from the free CTAHR Publications website. The subjects covered include wiliwili, Kauai white hibiscus, naio, ohia lehua, ma'o (Hawaiian cotton), aalii, hala, southern magnolia, wedelia, beach naupaka, Oahu white hibiscus, akia, hapuu (Hawaiian tree fern), monstera, oleander, ruellia, coromandel, hemigraphs, and bamboo.
New or revised CTAHR fact sheets are often posted on the website before printed versions become available.
Selecting a Tree Care Professional, Landscape, L-1, April 1997
Ginny Meade and David L. Hensley, firstname.lastname@example.org
Homeowners, property managers, and everyone working with plants can greatly extend the life and health of trees by practicing good gardening and maintenance techniques. Some tree maintenance jobs, however, are best handle by professionals.
Arborists are specialists in the care of individual trees. Arborists have the proper equipment, skills, and training to do work in large trees, around power lines, and at heights. Hiring an arborist should be a careful and detailed procedure. Safe and proper tree care is important not only as an investment but to minimize injuries and liability and extend the use and beauty of trees.
An arborist can provide services that include pruning, removal of entire trees, emergency tree care, root pruning, and cabling or bracing of branches. Many arborists also provide recommendations on tree selection and planting, fertilizer application, and insect and disease control.
How do you select a qualified arborist? Anyone can trim trees. Qualified and trained arborists, however, follow a set of professional, legal, and ethical guidelines.
Invest some initial time before you spend money to be sure you obtain the best possible care for your tees. The result will be trees that are healthy, long-living, and increasingly valuable.
This newsletter is produced in the Department of Horticulture, a unit of the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR), University of Hawaii at Manoa, as a participant in the Cooperative Extension Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. CTAHR is Hawaii's Land Grant institution established in 1907 from which the University of Hawaii developed. For information on CES horticulture programs or to receive future issues of this newsletter, please contact:
David Hensley or Kenneth Leonhardt
Mention of a trademark, company, or proprietary name does not constitute an endorsement, guarantee, or warranty by the University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service or its employees and does not imply recommendation to the exclusion of other suitable products or companies.Top of Page
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