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A Morinda citrifolia Bibliography

updated July 2002
Following is a selected print bibliography for Morinda citrifolia. For online sources of information and literature, please refer to our links page.



Abbott, I. A. (1992). La‘au Hawai‘i: traditional Hawaiian uses of plants. Honolulu, Hawai’i, Bishop Museum Press.

Abbott, I. and Shimazu, C. (1985). The Geographic Origin of the Plants Most Commonly Used for Medicine by Hawaiians, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 14: 213-222.

Baldwin, Roger E. (1979). Hawai'i's Poisonous Plants. Petroglyph Press.

Beckwith, Martha (1970). Hawaiian Mythology. University of Hawai'i Press.

Beckwith, Martha (1972). The Kumulipo. University of Hawai'i Press.

Buck, Peter H. (1957). (Te Rangi Hiroa); Arts and Crafts of Hawai'i. Bishop Museum Press.

Chun, M.N. (1994). Native Hawaiian medicine. Honolulu, HI: First People’s Productions.

Chun, Naomi N. Y. (1995). Hawaiian Canoe Building Traditions. Kamehameha Schools Press.

Degener, O. (1945). Plants of Hawai’i National Park illustrative of plants and customs of the South Seas. Ann Arbor, Michigan, Edward Brothers.

Dixon, A.R., H. McMillen, Etkin, N.L. (1999). Ferment This: The transformation of Noni, a traditional Polynesian medicine (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae). Economic Botany 53:51-68.

Elkins, Rita. (1997). Hawaiian Noni (Morinda citrifolia). Woodland Publishing; ISBN: 1885670672

Emerson, Nathaniel B. (1965). Unwritten Literature of Hawai'i. Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc.

Fornander, Abraham (1967). Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folklore. Bishop Museum Press, 1916-20.

Gutmanis, J. (1994). Kahuna La‘au Lapa‘au: The Practice of Hawaiian Herbal Medicine. Hong Kong: Island Heritage Publishing.

Handy, E. S. Craighill (1985). The Hawaiian Planter: His Plants, Methods and Areas of Cultivation. Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Handy, E.S. Craighill and Mary K. Pukui (1958). The Polynesian Family System in Ka'u, Hawai'i. Charles E. Tuttle Co.

Handy, E.S. Craighill and Elizabeth Green (1972). Native Planters in Old Hawai'i. Bishop Museum Press.

Handy, E.S.C., Pukui, M.K., Livermore, K. (1934). Outline of Hawaiian physical therapeutics.
Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press.

Hawai’i Plant Source Directory. (1999). University of Hawai’i at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.

Hargreaves, Dorothy and Bob (1964). Tropical Trees of Hawai'i. Hargreaves Co., Inc.

Holmes, Tommy (1981). The Hawaiian Canoe. Editions Ltd.

Ka'ai'akamanu, D.K. and J.K. Akina (1973). Hawaiian Herbs of Medicinal Value. Charles E. Tuttle, Co.

Kahiolo, G.W. (1978). He Moolelo No Kamapuaa: The Story of Kamapuaa. Translated by Mookini, T.

Kay, E. Alison (1995). Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands: Selected Readings II. The University of Hawai’i Press.

Kefford, Ned P. (1997). Workshop on kava, noni and other Hawai’i medicinal herbs. University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.

Krauss, Beatrice H. (1976). Ethnobotany of Hawai'i. The University of Hawai'i Press.

Krauss, B. H. (1981). Native Plants used as Medicine in Hawaii. 2nd ed. Honolulu, HI: Lyon Arboretum.

Krauss, Beatrice H. (1993). Plants in Hawaiian Culture. The University of Hawai’i Press.

Kent, Harold Winfield (1986). Treasury of Hawaiian Words in 101 Categories. University of Hawai’i Press.

Kepler, Angela Kay (1998). Hawaiian Heritage Plants (Revised Edition). University of Hawai`i Press.

Kepler, Angela Kay (1990). Trees of Hawai`i. University of Hawai`i Press.

Kuck, Loraine E., and Tongg, Richard C. (1958). A Guide to Tropical and Semi-Tropical Flora. In: Hawaiian Flowers and Flowering Trees; Charles E. Tuttle, Co.

Kwiatkowski, P.F., and Na Ki'i Pohaku (1991). A Hawaiian Petroglyph Primer. Ku Pa'a, Inc., Honolulu, Hawai’i.

Lucas, L. (1982). Plants of Old Hawai’i. Honolulu, Hawai’i. The Bess Press.

McBride, L.R. (1975). Practical Folk Medicine of Hawai’i. Hilo, Hawai’i. The Petroglyph Press

Palmer, Robert Maika'imau James (1987). Maui Organic Growing Guide. Oasis Maui, Inc.

Pukui, Mary Kawena and Samuel H. Elbert (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. University of Hawai'i Press.

Pukui, Mary Kawena, Hoirtig, E.W., and Lee, C.A. (1979). Nana I Ke Kumu - Look To The Source, Vol. I and II. Queen Liliuokalani Children's Center.

Pukui, Mary Kawena (1983). 'Olelo No'eau - Hawaiian Proverbs and Poetical Sayings. Bishop Museum Press.

Pukui, Mary Kawena, S.H. Elbert, and Mookini, E.T. (1976). Place Names of Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i Press.

Stevens, Richard L. (1981). Organic Gardening in Hawai'i. Petroglyph Press.

Tabrah, F.L. and Eveleth, B.M., (1966). Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Ancient Hawaiian Medicine, Hawaii Medical Journal 25, 223-230.

Williams, Julie Stewart (1997). From the Mountains to the Sea: A Hawaiian Lifestyle; Kamehameha Schools Press.
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Alexander Dittmar (1993). Morinda citrifolia L. -- Use in Indigenous Samoan Medicine, Journal of Herbs and Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1 (3).

Biggs, B.G. (1985). Contemporary healing practices in east Futuna. In: Parsons, C.D.F. ed. Healing practices in the South Pacific. Laie, HI: Institute for Polynesian Studies108-128 in

Buck, Peter H. (1938). Vikings of the Sunrise. F. A. Stokes Publishing.

Cambie, R.C., and Ash, J. (1994). Fijian Medicinal Plants. CSIRO Australia.

Clarke, W.C., and Thaman, R.R. (1993). Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for Sustainability. United Nations University Press.

Charlot, John (1983). Chanting the Universe. Emphasis International.

Dittmar, Alexandra (1993). Morinda citrifolia L: Use in Indigenous Samoan Medicine. Journal of Herbs and Medicinal Plants, Vol. 1(3).

Dodd, Edward (1990). The Island World of Polynesia. Windmill Hill Press.

Fornander, Abraham (1969). An Account of the Polynesian Race. Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc.

Guppy, H.B. (1917). Plants, seeds and currents in the West Indies and Azores. Covent Garden, London,
England: Williams & Norgate.

Henderson, C.P., and Hancock, I.R. (1989). A Guide to the Useful Plants of Solomon Islands. Ministry of
Agriculture and Lands, Solomon Islands.

Jansen, A.A.J., Parkinson, S., Robertson, A.F.S. Eds. (1990). Food and Nutrition in Fiji: An Historical Review. Vol. 1, Food Production, Composition and Intake. Suva, Fiji: The University of the South Pacific.

McClatchey, W. (1996). The Ethnopharmacopoeia of Rotuma. J. Ethnopharm. 50:147-156.

McCormack, G. (1998). Noni- A Miracle Medicine? Cook Islands Natural Heritage Project.

Merlin, M., Capelle, A., Keene, T., Juvik, J. and Maragos, J. (1994). Plants and Environments of the Marshall Islands. East-West Center.

Morton, J. (1992). The ocean-going noni, or Indian Mulberry (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae) and some of its “colorful” relatives. Economic Botany 46:241-256.

Raynor, W.C., and Fownes, J.H. (1991). Indigenous agroforestry of Pohnpei: plant species and cultivars. Agroforestry Systems 16(2):139-158.

Singh, Y., Ikahihifo, T., Panuve, M., Slatter, C., (1984) Folk Medicine in Tonga. A Study on the Use of Herbal Medicines for Obstetric and Gynecological Conditions and Disorders, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 12: 305-325

Valentine, Nicholas (1999). A Preliminary Report on Non-timber Forest Products in Some Pacific Island Countries (with a case study on Morinda citrifolia). SPC/UNDP/AusAID/FAO Pacific Islands Forests & Trees Support Prpgramme. RAS/97/330, Working Paper No. 6.

Wee Yeow Chin (1992). A Guide to Medicinal Plants. Singapore Science Centre.

Whistler, W.A. (1992). Polynesian Herbal Medicine. Lawai, Kaua‘i, Hawai’i. National Tropical Botanical

Whistler, W. Arthur (1980). Coastal Flowers of the Tropical Pacific. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.

Whistler, W.A. (1991). Polynesian Plant Introductions. In: Cox, P.A., Banack, S.A., eds. Islands, Plants, and Polynesians. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press 41-66.

Whistler, W. A. (1992). Tongan Herbal Medicine, Isle Botanica, Honolulu, Hawaii, 89-90 pp.

Whistler, W. A. (1992). Polynesian Herbal Medicine; National Tropical Botanical Garden.

Whistler, W. A. (1996). Wayside Plants of the Islands: A Guide to the Lowland Flora of the Pacific Islands; The University of Hawai’i Press.
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Amlou, M., Moreteau, B., David, J.R. (1998). Genetic analysis of Drosophila sechellia specialization: oviposition behavior toward the major aliphatic acids of its host plant. Behav Genet 28(6):455-64.

Boczed, J., and Chandrpatya, A. (1998). Studies on eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea): XXV. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Biological Sciences. 46(1):31-38.

Farine, J.P., Legal, L., Moreteau, B., and Le Quere, J.L. (1996). Volatile components of ripe fruits of Morinda citrifolia and their effects on Drosophila. Phytochemistry Oxford 41(2):433-438.

Higa, I., Fuyama, Y. (1993). Genetics of food preference in Drosophila sechellia. I. Responses to food attractants. Genetica 88(2-3):129-36.

Jones, C.D. (1998). The genetic basis of Drosophila sechellia's resistance to a host plant toxin. Genetics 149(4):1899-908.

Legal, L., and Plawecki, M. (1995). Comparative sensitivity of various insects to toxic compounds from Morinda citrifolia. Entomological Problems 26(2):155-159.

Mackeen, M.M., Ali, A.M., Abdullah, M.A., Nasir, R.M., Mat, N.B., Razak, A.R. and Kawazu, K. (1997). Antinematodal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Pesticide Science 51(2):165-170.

Manner, H.I., Thaman, R.R., and Hassall, D.C. (1985). Phosphate mining induced vegetation changes on Nauru island Pacific Ocean. Ecology Washington D.C. 65(5):1454-1465.

Moreteau, B., R'Kha, S., David, J.R. (1994). Genetics of a nonoptimal behavior: oviposition preference of Drosophila mauritiana for a toxic resource. Behav Genet 24(5):433-41.

Nelson, S.C. (2001). Noni cultivation in Hawaii. Univ. of Hawaii CTAHR-Cooperative Extension Service PD-19.

Nelson, S.C. (2001). Black flag of noni (Morinda citrifolia) caused by Phytophthora botryosa. Univ. of Hawaii CTAHR-Cooperative Extension Service F&N-4.

R'Kha, S., Capy, P., David, J.R. (1991). Host-plant specialization in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex: a physiological, behavioral, and genetical analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88(5):1835-9.

Valentine, Nicholas (1999). A preliminary report on non-timber forest products in some Pacific island countries (with a case study on Morinda citrifolia). SPC/UNDP/AusAID/FAO Pacific Islands Forest & Trees Support Programme. Working Paper No. 6 RAS/97/330.

Williams, P.R. (1998). Post fire regeneration of tree seedlings in a revegetation site at Townsville, North Queensland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 107(0):89-92.
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d'Raye, Tonita (1998). Simply Noni - Ancient Health Miracle for Modern Times. Awieca Publishing, Inc.; March 2000, 2nd edition.

Elkins, Rita (2002). The Noni Revolution: The Tropical Wonder That Can Fight Disease Boost Energy and Revitalize Your Health. Woodland Publishing; ISBN: 1580543499

Fairechild, Diana (2001). Noni: Aspirin of the Ancients. Flyana Rhyme; ISBN: 1892997819

Gibbons, Euell (1967). Beachcomber's Handbook. David McKay Co., Inc.

Navarre, Isa (2001). 76 Ways to Use Noni Fruit Juice. Direct Source; ISBN: 1887938990

Soloman, Neil (1998). Noni: Nature's Amazing Healer. Woodland Publishing.

Solomon, Neil (2000). Tahitian Noni Juice : How Much, How Often, For What. Direct Source; ISBN: 1887938907

Solomon, Neil (1999). The Noni Phenomenon. Direct Source; ISBN: 1887938877

Solomon, Neli (1998). Liquid Island Noni (Morinda citrifolia). Woodland Publishing Co, Utah, USA.
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Ahmad, V.U., and Bano, S. (1980). Isolation of beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid from Morinda citrifolia Linn. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 2(2):71-.

Bassetti. L., and Tramper, J. (1994). Organic solvent toxicity in Morinda citrifolia cell suspensions. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 16(8) 642-648.

Bassetti. L., and Tramper, J. (1995). Increased anthraquinone production by Morinda citrifolia in a two-phase system with Pluronic F-68. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 17(4):353-358.

Bassetti. L., and Tramper, J. (1995). Use of non-conventional media in Morinda citrifolia cell cultures. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 43(2):93-95.

Bassetti, L., Hagendoorn, M. and Tramper, J. (1995). Surfactant-induced non-lethal release of anthraquionones from suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia. Journal of Biotechnology 39(2):149-155.

Bassetti, L., Pijnenburg, J., and Tramper, J. (1996). Silicone-stimulated anthraquinone production and release by Morinda citrifolia in a two-liquid-phase system. Biotechnology Letters 18(4):377-382.

Daniel EM, Krupnick AS, Heur Y, Blinzler JA, Nims RW, Stoner, GD (1989). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol 2, pp. 338-349.

Doernenburg, H., and Knorr, D. (1994). Elicitation of chitinases and anthraquinones in Morinda citrifolia cell cultures. Food Biotechnology New York 8(1):57-65.

Doernenburg, H., and Knorr, D. (1994). Effectiveness of plant-derived and microbial polysaccharides as elicitors for anthraquinone synthesis in Morinda citrifolia cultures. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42(4):1048-1052.

Fong, S.T., Johnson, A., Ho, C-T., Csiszar, K. Extracts of Morinda citrifolia (noni) exhibit selective anti-tumor activity against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines. Poster presented at: Building Bridges with Traditional Knowledge Summit meeting; May 30, 2001; Honolulu, HI.

Heinicke, R.M. (1985). The pharmacologically active ingredient of noni. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden Bulletin 15:10-14.

Hagendoorn, M.J.M., Van Der Plas, L.H.W., and Segers, G.J. (1994). Accumulation of anthraquinones in Morinda citrifolia cell suspensions: A model system for the study of the interaction between secondary and primary metabolism. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 38(2-3):227-234.

Hagendoorn, M.J.M., Jamar, D.C.L., Meykamp, B., and Van Der Plas, L.H.W. (1997). Cell division versus secondary metabolite production in Morinda citrifolia cell suspensions. Journal of Plant Physiology 150(3):325-330.

Hiramatsu T, Imoto M, Koyano T, Umezawa K. (1993). Induction of normal phenotypes in ras-transformed cells by damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia; Cancer Lett. 73(2-3):161-6.

Hirazumi, A.Y. (1997). Antitumor studies of a traditional Hawaiian medicinal plant, Morinda citrifolia (noni), in vitro and in vivo. [doctoral dissertation]. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i.

Hirazumi, A., Fususawa, E. (1999). An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit
juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) with anti-tumor activity. Phytotherapy Res 13:380-7.

Hirazumi, A., Furusawa, E., Chou, S.C., Hokama, Y. (1996). Immunomodulation contributes to anti-cancer activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice. Proc West Pharm Soc. 39:7-9.

Hirazumi, A., Furusawa, E., Chou, S.C., Hokama, Y. (1994). Anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) on intraperitoneally implanted Lewis lung carcinoma in syngenic mice. Proc West Pharm Soc. 37:145-6

Hiwasa, T., Arase, Y., Chen, Z., Kita, K., Umezawa, K., Ito, H., Suzuki, N. (1999). Stimulation of ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human fibroblast UVr-1 ceclls by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. FEBS-Letters. 444(2-3): 173-176.

Inoue, K., Nayeshiro, H., Inouye, H., and Zenk, M. (1981). Anrthraquinones in cell suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia. Phytochemistry 20:1693-1700.

Issell, B. The Noni Study. (2001). Honolulu, HI: Cancer Research Center of Hawai‘i, Clinical Studies, www.hawaii.edu/crch/CenStudyNoni.htm.

Kiernan, P.M., O’Donnell, H.J., Malone, D.M., and Macloughlin, P.F. (1995). Fluid shear effects on suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 45(5):415-425.

Leistner, E. (1975). Isolation, identification and biosynthesis of anthraquinones in cell suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia [Article in German] Planta Med Suppl:214-24.

Levland, 0, & Larson, H.O. (1979). Some Chemical Constituents of Morinda citrifolia (Noni); Planta Medica, 36: 186 -87.

Liu, G., Bode, A., Ma, W.Y., Sang, S., Ho, C-T., Dong, Z. (2001). Two novel glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni) inhibit AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line. Can Res. 61:5749-56.

Limyati, D.A., Juniar, B.L. (1998). Jamu Gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in Indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and endproduct. J Ethnopharmacol 63(3):201-8

Moorthy, N.K., and Reddy, G.S. (1970). Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological study of Morinda citrifolia. Antisecptic 3:167-171.

Mueller, B.A., Scott , M.K., Sowinski, K.M., and Prag, K.A. (2000). Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia): hidden potential for hyperkalemia? Am J Kidney Dis. 35(2):330-2.

Narayanan B.A., Geoffrey, O., Willingham, M.C., Re, G.G., and Nixon, D.W. (1999). Cancer Letters, vol 136, pp.215-221.

O’Driscoll, D., Wilson, G., and Steer, M.W. (1991). Lucifer yellow and fluorescein isothiocyanate uptake by cells of Morinda citrifolia in suspension cultures is not confined to the endocytotic pathway. Journal of Cell Science 100(1):237-242.

Peerzada, N., Renaud, S., and Ryan, P. (1990). Vitamin C and elemental composition of some bushfruits. Journal of Plant Nutrition 13(7):787-784.

Raj, R.K. (1975). Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 19(1):UNKNOWN.

Rusia, K., and Srivastava, S.K. (1989). A new athraquinone from the roots of Morinda citrifolia Linn. Curr. Sci. 5:248-

Sang, S., Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Badmaev, V., Ghai. G., Rosen, R.T., and Ho, C.T. (2001). Flavonol glycosides and novel iridoid glycoside from the leaves of Morinda citrofolia. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 (9):44778-4481.

Sang, S., Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Wang, M., Jhoo, J.W., Stark, R.E., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., and Ho, C.T. (2001). Iridoid glycosides from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia. J. Nat. Prod. 64 (6):799-800.

Sang, S., He, K., Liu, G., Zhu, N., Cheng, X., Wang, M., Zheng, Q., Dong, Z., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., and Ho, C.T. (2001). A new unusual iridoid with inhibition of activator protein-1 (AP-1) from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia L. Org. Lett. 3(9):1307-1309.

Singh, J. and Tiwari, R.D. (1976). Flavone glycosides from the flowers of Morinda citrifolia. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 53:424-.

Simonsen, J.L. (1920). Constituents of Morinda citrifolia. J. Chem. Soc. 117:561-564.

Sugiura, K., Stock, C.C. (1955). Studies in a tumor spectrum. III. The effect of phosphoramides on the growth of a variety of mouse and rat tumors. Can Res. 15:38-51.

Srivastava, M., and Singh, J. 1993. A new glycoside from Morinda citrifolia. Int. J. Pharmacol 31 3:182-184.

Sylvester, Edward, J. (1986). Target Cancer. Charles Scribner's Sons, N.Y.

Tiwari, R.D., and Singh, J. (1977). Structual study of the anthraquinone glycoside from the flowers of Morinda citrifolia. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 45: 429-.

Van der Plas, L.H.W., Hagendoorn, M.J.M., Jamar, D.C.L. (1998). Anthraquinone glycosylation and hydrolysis in Morinda citrifolia cell suspensions: Regulation and function. Journal of Plant Physiology 152(2-3):235-241.

Wang, M., Kikuzaki, H., Csiszar, K., Boyd, C.D., Maunakea, A., Fong, S.F., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Nakatani, N., Ho, C.T. (1999). Novel trisaccharide fatty acid ester identified from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). J Agric Food Chem. 47:4880-2.

Wang, M., Kikuzaki, H., Jin, Y., Nakatani, N., Zhu, N., Csiszar, K., Boyd, C.D., Rosen, R.T., Ghai, G., Ho, C.T. (2000). Novel glycosides from noni (Morinda citrifolia). J Nat Prod. 63:1182–3.

Wang, M. Y., and Su, C. (2001). Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 952:1610168.

Younos, C., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Lanhers, M.C., Misslin, R., Mortier, F. (1990). Analgesic and behavioral effects of Morinda citrifolia; Planta Med. 56(5):430-4.

Zenk, M.H., el-Shagi, H., Schulte, U. (1975). Anthraquinone production by cell suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia. Planta Med Suppl:79-101.
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Byrd, Alfred Graf (1992). Tropica: Color Cyclopedia of Exotic Plants and Trees. Roehrs Co., East Rutherford, New Jersey

Chapin, Melany H. (1990). Noni. Hawaii Plant Conservation Center of the National Resource in Tropical Botany.

Elliot, S. and Brimacombe, J. (1987). The Medicinal Plants of Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 19, 285, 308.

Johansson, J.T. (1994). The genus Morinda (Morindae, Rubiodeae, Rubiaceae) in New Caledonia: taxonomy and phylogeny. Opera Botanica 122:1-67.

Neal, Marie (1965). In Gardens of Hawai'i. Bishop Museum Press.

Wagner, et al (1999). Manual of Flowering Plants of Hawai`i (Revised Edition); University of Hawai`i Press.


Duke, James A. Handbook of Phytochemicals. CRC Publishing, Boca Raton, Fl.

Terra, G. J. A. (1966). Quality of tropical food products: a multi-disciplinary approach. Amsterdam,
The Netherlands: Koninkliijk Instituut voor de Tropen.
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Fackelman, K. (1997). Science News 151: 274-275.

Fairechild, Diana (1999). Noni and ‘Awa: Hawaii Agriculture’s Newest Hope. Spirit of Aloha (Aloha Airlines in flight magazine).

Kaltsas, Harvey (2001). Noni: From Legend to Promising Nutraeutical. Alternative Medicine Journal, January, 2001.

Khan, David (1999). Fijian Businessman Exports Morinda citrifolia juice. Pacific Islands Forest and Trees Newsletter No. 2/99 pp. 7.

Newsweek Magazine, April 25, 1994; Phytochemicals.

TenBruggencate, J., (1992) Native Plants Can Heal Your Wounds, Honolulu Sunday Star Bulletin & Advertiser, Feb. 9, Honolulu, Hawaii.


Kanahele, George Hu'eu (1988). A Hawaiian Sense of Place, Course I and II. Sponsored by Hotel Hana Maui, 1988 (included study-book).

Zepernick, B. (1972). Arneipflanzen der Polynesier. Berlin, Germany: Verlag von Dietrich Reiner.
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McClatchey, Will. (2002). From Polynesian Healers to Health Food Stores: Changing Perspectives of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae). Integrative Cancer Therapies 1(2): 110-120.


McClatchey, W. (1993). The Traditional Medicinal System and Ethnopharmacopoeia of Rotuma. [Master’s thesis]. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University.

O’Rourke-George, L. (1989). An ethnobotanical study of traditional medicine in Tonga. [master’s thesis]. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University.
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Last Updated on December 7, 2006